History of Green County


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     Congressional township 1 north, range 9 east, of the fourth principal meridian, comprises the civil town of Spring Grove, forming the south-eastern corner of Green county.  On account of the correction lines of the government survey, this congressional township embraces 24,989.92 acres of land.  This town is bounded on the north and west by the towns of Decatur and Jefferson, respectively; on the east it is bounded by Rock county, and on the south by the State of Illinois. The surface of this town is quite rolling, but no abrupt bluffs exist except at, or near the Clarence bridge, across Sugar river. This river crosses the north line of the town, by way of the northwest quarter of section 2, and flows in a southeasterly direction, to leave the town through the southeast quarter of section 13. Spring creek, main branch, heads on section 30, and on section 10 is joined by a smaller branch which heads on section 7. The creek, thus formed, flows into Sugar river, from the west on section 12. The soil in Spring Grove is varied. East of Sugar river is a sandy prairie, with timber skirting the river. West of the river, the low lands set in, which are covered with a soil of rich, black loam; these level lands extend from the river toward the higher lands.   Except along the river, this land is not timbered.  On the farm of Thomas Hamilton, an elevation seventy feet high rises from the level lands around, covering about ten acres.  This is called Rock Hill. There is but little soil on the top. The rock crops out on all sides, shaded by scrubby timber. The north tier of sections, west of the river, are nearly all made up of rolling prairie, with a soil of dark loam and clay, and gravel subsoil. Sections 31, 30, 32 and 33, all have more or less prairie land. Originally the surface was timbered with different varieties of oak, maple, basswood and considerable black walnut and other varieties of hard wood. The timber soil is generally a black loam, with a clay mixture, and clay and limestone subsoil.
     The natural advantages of this town in wealth of soil, can hardly be overestimated. It will compare favorably with the best in the county. To own a farm in Spring Grove was a passport to credit in early days. The town was settled by men from Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York mostly, and some from Indiana. All the early settlers were American born. A better class of men have never settled in any town in the county. "A good soil attracts good men." At present the town ranks with the best in the county, in real and personal property valuation. Its people are thrifty, enterprising and intelligent. Good residences, fine barns, orchards, etc., are seen in every neighborhood. The farmers generally are giving much attention to stock raising.
     The principal farm products grown in the town of Spring Grove, during the year 1882, were as follows: 3,865 bushels wheat; 132,975 bushels of corn; 122,794 bushels oats; 48 bushels barley; 5,786 bushels rye, 8,004 bushels potatoes; 1734 bushels apples; 155 bushels clover weed; 595 bushels timothy seed; 5,253 tons hay; 190,820 pounds butter; 100,350 pounds cheese.

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     The principal farm products growing in the town at the time of making the annual assessment in 1883, were as follows: 500 acres wheat; 6,005 acres corn; 4,220 acres oats; 103 acres barley; 599 acres rye; 102 acres potatoes; 225 acres apple orchard; 12,840 bearing trees; 5,008 acres grasses; 3,515 acres growing timber; 1,200 milk cows, valued at $33,600. The live stock in the town in 1883 was as follows: 738 horses, average value $64.33, total $47,482; 3,010 head of cattle, average value $19.92, total $59,989; 11 mules, total value $640., 1,849 sheep, average value $2., total, $3,709; 2,237 hogs, average value,$5., total $11,192.


     Darius Daniels, formerly from the State of New York, in 1836 bought 160 acres of land on section 30, and the same year erected a cabin, and broke ten acres of land. This was the first cabin erected and the first land broke within the limits now comprising the town of Spring Grove.  The following winter of 1836-7 he lived alone; being the first and the only settler in the town at that time.  He came here from Shullsburg, Lafayette county, and had no family.
     In the fall of 1837 Daniel Baxter came with his family and settled on section 31.  He had purchased 280 acres of government land in the previous May, and did a little breaking. Mr. Baxter came from the State of New York. He had made a claim a year or so before in Walnut Grove, Stephenson Co., Ill., which he sold the same year that he settled here.   After his wife's death in 1845, he sold to John Kryder, whose sons, A. J. and J. J. Kryder, now own and occupy the land.
     In 1837 Daniels, who was an acquaintance of the Baxters, left his land in charge of the latter and returned to his former avocation—lead mining at Shullsburg. The latter sold his land to Baxter, and never became a permanent resident of Spring Grove.
     Baxter was accompanied, when he came here, by a son-in-law. Mr. Church, who, however, only remained here a short time.  The Baxter family went to Sauk Prairie. One son, Thomas, returned, and still lives in the town.
     Isaac Kline and family came from La Porte Co., Ind., in the spring of 1837, reaching this town early in May.  Accompanying the party came two married sons, Eli and John Kline, and a son-in-law, Samuel Myers. Isaac Kline was an active man, and pushed new enterprises in the settlement with energy. He died in Missouri. One daughter of John Kline, Matilda, still lives in the town, the wife of Frank Waggoner. One daughter of Isaac, Mary, married J. H. Clemans, who came here in 1839.  Samuel Myers died in this town during the war, and his widow now lives in Monroe.
     William Kline was born May 20, 1832, in Indiana, and was not quite five years of age when his father settled on section 29, in this town, in March, 1837.  His father was Isaac Kline, and he came here from La Porte Co., Ind. He visited the town in the fall of 1836, and purchased his land and made some improvement upon it.  The family consisted of Mr. Kline and his wife, Catharine, their daughters, Catharine, Jane and Mary, and their youngest son, William. Samuel Myers, a son-in-law, husband of an older daughter, Sarah, came here at the same time, also an older son, Eli, with his wife, accompanied the family. Another son, John, came the same year; he also was accompanied by his family.  Isaac Kline was a man of much energy. He built the first saw mill in this county, which was in operation early in 1839.  In 1843 he built the pioneer carding mill. He died near Springfield, Mo., in 1863. His wife died in this town in 1853. Eli Kline settled on section 34, where he lived until 1866.  He then sold out and removed to Rock Grove, Ill., where he died in 1883. John Kline settled on section 29, and some years later sold his land to his father and bought on section 5. His wife died in 1867, and his death occurred in 1875. They left one daughter—Matilda, wife of Frank Waggoner.

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Catharine Kline was married in the fall of 1839 to Horace Griffin. Theirs was the first marriage in this town. They removed to Missouri several years ago. Jane died in this town.  Mary is now the widow of J. H. Clemans, and lives in Spring Grove.  Samuel Myers settled in the southwest part of this town. His widow now lives in Monroe. William Kline, in 1853, was married to Mary Ann O'Neal, daughter of Robert E. O'Neal. Four children were born to them three of whom are living—Luella, wife of D. C. Allen; David L., living in Nebraska; Flora R., wife of Charles Hawkins, of Avon, Rock county.  Mrs. Kline died Aug. 5, 1864.  Jan. 2, 1871, Mr. Kline was again married to Mrs. Lucinda Newcomer, widow of George Newcomer, who died at Petersburg, Va., in 1865. He was a member of the 38th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, company E.  Mr. and Mrs. Newcomer had seven children—Jacob, living in Brodhead; Joseph, living in Clay Co., Neb.; Mary, wife of Jacob Keller; Susan, wife of Peter Wrenchel; Eva, wife of Charles Robinson; Sarah, wife of John Hawkins, and George, deceased. William Kline resided in Missouri from 1856 till the fall of 1861.  He now resides on section 20, of the town of Spring Grove. Isaac Kline and his son, John Kline were, by a short time, the earliest permanent settlers in the town of Spring Grove.
     James W. Kildow is one of the earliest settlers in Green county, living in the town of Spring Grove. His residence here dates from the year 1837.  Mr. Kildow was born in the old "Mother of Presidents," Virginia, Nov. 15, 1815. His father, John Kildow, left his home in eastern Virginia, in 1817, intending to go to Ohio and make a home for himself and family. In those days, money was hard to get, and of uncertain value, when obtained.  Before starting upon his journey, he changed all his money for Wheeling bank bills, but before reaching that place, was met with tidings, saying, "Wheeling banks are busted." (so in the good old times, banks did burst.)   His journey ended abruptly. He stopped in Bridgeport, Fayette Co., Penn., where, being a miller by trade, he rented a grist mill, which he operated about six years. He then rented another mill in the same county, about twenty miles distant, on George's creek. This mill he also operated about six years.  After this he followed the trade of millwright the remainder of his life. He died in Fayette county in 1838. His wife died in 1832. They reared a family of nine children, six sons and three daughters, seven of whom are now living, (1884). James W. Kildow, subject of this sketch, left Pennsylvania, Feb. 22, 1837, in company with James Chadwick, Jo. Reed, William Hurlbut and Dan Goodwin. The party all came to Wisconsin, separating at Galena, James Chadwick and Mr. Kildow coming to Green county. The journey by boat, from Wheeling, occupied twenty days, being delayed by ice and other causes. Mr. Kildow made his first stop at the present site of the city of Monroe where he made a temporary home.  In 1839, he bought land on section 25, of the town of Jefferson. This land he partly improved, and held until 1844, when he bought land on section 30, in this town, and made his residence there until 1857, at the same time owning land on section 20. He was married Nov. 12, 1840, to Keziah, daughter of David Davis, mention of whom is made elsewhere in this work.  This union has been blessed by ten children—David, born in October, 1841, and died at the age of eighteen months; Levi W., born in February, 1843, and died the same year, Joshua P., born in October, 1844; Thomas C., born in February, 1847, and died in May, 1853; John Q. A., born in April 1849, and died in August, 1850; Josiah N., born in June 1851, Polly, born in August, 1853, and now the wife of J. T. Clemans; Alfred B., born in July, 1855; James N., born in September 1857, and Willis born in September 1860. Mr. Kildow was the first postmaster of the first postoffice in the town of Spring Grove,

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which position he occupied from 1845 to 1857, when he moved from the neighborhood. About two years later, his wife, Keziah Kildow was made deputy postmistress of Pe Dee post-office. She held that position until 1862. September of that year Mr. Kildow was commissioned postmaster, and held the office until 1867. He is a man widely known in Green county, and possesses hosts of friends. His integrity, and firmness in maintaining his convictions of what he believed to be right, are well known.  He was, in the old time, an abolitionist of the "Garrison and Wendell Phillips" faith.  At the organization of the town of Spring Grove, he was elected chairman of the board of supervisors, from 1842 to 1858. He has held the office of justice of the peace, town clerk, town treasurer, also a member of the side board. He was a voter in the first election held after the organization of the county.   He has always been a prominent citizen. His residence is on section 22, Spring Grove.
     Joshua P. Kildow is a son of the pioneer, J. W. Kildow, and was born Oct. 4, 1844. He enlisted in company K, of the 22d Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, Aug. 11, 1862.  In March, 1863, he was discharged on account of sickness. Recovering his health he re-enlisted, Oct. 5th, of that year, in Battery D, 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery, was sent to the Louisiana department and stationed at Fort Jackson from Feb. 1864, to July of the same year.  He then went to Brasher City, where he remained till July, 1865. He was mustered out at Alexandria, Va.  Mr. Kildow was married Feb. 21, 1867, to Caroline Keller, a sister of Mrs. George W. Zimmerman. They have eight children—Mary Jane, Rebecca F., James W., Nora E., Attiel B., Nancy E., Charles A. and Ethlyn M. Alfred B. Kildow was married to Mary A. Clawson, Feb. 22, 1881. Her parents were named Hannahs; but they dying when she was an infant, she was adopted by a family named Clawson, and afterwards went by that name.
     Horace Griffin came in the fall of 1837. In November of the same year he married Catharine Kline and settled on section 21. After living there about twenty years they removed to Missouri, where he died.
     Thomas Judkins had arrived earlier in the fall of 1837. He had entered land on section 29, in 1836, and the following year brought his family, consisting of wife and two sons. They lived here about twelve years and finally, some years later, removed to the State of Oregon.
     Alfred Blakely, a single man, came with the Klines' in 1837, but never made his home here.
     David Davis and his family came from Fayette Co., Penn., in 1838, and lived in a cabin owned by Jehu Chadwick, in the town of Jefferson, until Mr. Davis could erect a cabin on the land he had purchased on section 5, of this town.  He erected a hewn log cabin and put in the first sawed lumber floor ever laid in Green county.
     David M. Davis, son of the pioneer settler, David Davis, resides upon land located by his father in 1838. David Davis (pioneer) came here from Fayette Co., Penn., accompanied by his wife and eight children, six boys and two girls. He purchased 280 acres of government land on section 5. The children were—Nancy, now-widow of A. Barmore; Keziah, wife of J. W. Kildow; Thomas, who returned to Pennsylvania and died there in 1845; James N., living in Cadiz; David M., living on the homestead farm; Joel, living in Rock county; Samuel A., living in Franklin Co., Iowa; and William, who died in 1865. After coming to this county Mr. and Mrs. Davis had five children born—Dr. E. Davis, who lives in Magnolia, Rock county; Zachariah P. who enlisted in company K, of the 22d Wisconsin regiment, and was killed at the battle of Resaca, May 15, 1864; Joseph, who was a member of the same company and regiment, died June 30, 1871; John Quincy, who died Nov. 1, 1876; and Levi, who died Sept. 15, 1874. One of the elder sons of David Davis preceded the family to Green county. Joshua

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P. Davis came in 1837, for the purpose of looking up a location for his father's family. He died at the home of Jesse Mitchell, in the town of Sylvester, Feb. 17,1838. David Davis was one of the solid, substantial men of the town of Spring Grove. He was ever kind and hospitable and always foremost in any work tending to the public welfare. A most valuable member in a new community. He was one of the members of the first Baptist Church organized in the county, acting as deacon in that organization. He died Feb. 7, 1882, in his eighty-ninth year, passing away willingly, in hope of a better life, for which he was fully prepared. His wife's death occurred in February, 1871. David M. Davis was born in Fayette Co., Penn., Nov. 22, 1829. He resided with his parents until he attained his majority. He was married Dec. 25, 1850, to Charlotte Ann South, by whom he had one son— Enoch T.  Mrs. Davis died Aug. 16, 1853, in consequence of being bitten by a rattlesnake. Mr. Davis was again married Oct. 21, 1854, to Mary Hugh, who died Sept. 19, 1855.  July 10, 1856, he was married to Frances C. Boughton, and by this union there were ten children, of whom seven are living—Charlotte A., Marquis A., John C., Jehiel Z., Viola, Frances C. and Joseph N.  The three deceased were—Mary Jane, Leonard J. and an infant.  Mr. Davis was again bereaved by the loss of his wife, which occurred Nov. 7, 1882.  March 3, 1883, he was united in marriage with Elizabeth Davis. One child has been born to them—Bertha Elizabeth, born Jan. 7, 1884. Enoch T. Davis was married Oct. 27,1874, to Belle Brown and they have two children—Elsie S. and Dallas E. He lives in a separate residence upon his father's farm. David M. Davis succeeded to his father's estate, to which he has made additions and now owns one of the largest farms in the county. It contains 443 acres, all of which, except twenty-three acres, is under cultivation. He met with a serious loss in 1882, having his barn destroyed by fire. His residence is large and commodious. Mr. Davis is a man who commands the respect and esteem of all, and one of the leading men in this community.
     In the fall of 1838, Stephen Bowen came from Warren Co., Ind, and settled on sections 18 and 19. He died in Kansas. His daughter, Sarah, married Joseph Grayson, who came here in 1841. Grayson had been through the Canadian Patriot War, sometimes called McKenzie's War. They went to Missouri, where Mrs. Grayson died. Martha Bowen married Isaac Trombley, who came here from Ohio, in 1844. She died here. Mr. Trombley married again and removed to Kansas, where he still lives.
     Hezekiah Bussey came from Indiana, and settled with his family on section 20, late in 1843. He died in 1872.
     William Bussey, a son of Hezekiah, came in 1838. In 1844 he built a mill on section 15, on Spring creek. John and George, two other sons, came in 1842. John now lives in Arkansas. George lives in Juda. Nelson Bussey, the youngest son, settled here in 1843. He still lives in this town. He served in company B, 31st Wisconsin Volunteers, and later in the 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery. He now lives on section 32.
     Daniel and Mordecai Vanderbilts came early in the "forties" and settled on section 18. They were good citizens, active in public matters. Both died in this town.
     French Lake was born in Virginia, in 1807. He came to Lafayette Co., Wis., in 1827, and settled in this town on section 7, in 1839, having selected and bought 760 acres of land of the government in 1836. The first night in September, when he moved here alone, (he remained a bachelor until 1851), he tied his oxen to a tree where his fine residence now stands, and removed a small portion of the turf, and making an excavation below, buried his money—of which he had plenty. Replacing the turf and hanging his camp kettle over it, he made his fire and cooked his supper, sleeping soundly, under the wagon box. The kettle hung there

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until he built his cabin. No burglar-proof time lock safe could have made his money more secure. But his method of deposits became known not long after, for a Mr. Riley came one morning wishing to borrow $10. The parley was concluded by Mr. Lake saying he could have it to-morrow, but Riley must have it to-day. Lake says, you wait and have dinner with me, and ostensibly going to the spring for water, betook his spade, and removing the nicely adjusted turf in the grass plat, where he done his banking, he lifted the old sack, and hearing a step, he turned and there stood Riley, laughing. Lake was confounded and, for some days, could not decide where to locate his deposits again. Mr. Lake is a very energetic man, has always made money and is wealthy, owning nearly 1,300 acres of land. He has been a widower for several years. His love of the south and present sympathy with the "lost cause," has embittered many against him, but for all, he is a good citizen.
     Mrs. Rachel M. Ten Eyck, is the widow of the late Jacob Ten Eyck, who was born in Albany Co., N.Y., in 1800. His father, Caspar H. B. Ten Eyck, moved during the early part of the century to Bembroke, Canada West, with his family. Jacob Ten Eyck was married in Green Co. N. Y.,0ct. 6, 1835, to Rachel M. Van Der Zee. They lived in Canada until the outbreak of the "Patriot War’ or McKenzie's War" so-called, when he went to the State of New York. About the time of leaving Canada Mr. Ten Eyck bought of Rodolphus D. Derrick 540 acres of land, (it being a part of Mr. Derrick's purchase of 1,200 acres) on sections 3 and 4, town of Spring Grove. He settled on this purchase during the spring of 1839. He had for a short time previously lived in Illinois. Mr. and Mrs. Ten Eyck have had seven children—Lavina, born in Canada, Sept 17,1836; Albert A., born in New York, Sept. 1, 1838; Caspar H. B. born July 17, 1840, who died in infancy; Caspar A., born Dec. 26, 1841, died Jan. 22, 1848; Catharine A., born Oct. 26, 1843; Egbert, born Sept. 20,1846, and Cecelia, born in 1853. Catharine was the first white child born in this neighborhood. Mr. Ten Eyck early gave his attention to growing stock, and improving his herds, and to this can be charged indirectly his death which was a sad event, having been killed by one of his bulls, Sept. 3,1876. At the time of his death he was one of the largest land owners in the county, having 1,200 acres which is now all in his children's possession. His son Albert A., was married to Amanda M. Moore. They live in Decatur. Lavina was married to M. D. McNair, March 31,1870. They have two children—Egbert D., born Jan. 7, 1871, and Jacob D., born April 28, 1880.   Mr. McNair has a residence joining his wife's property where he resides. Catharine was married to Peter D. Taylor. They live in Spring Valley, Rock county.  Mrs. Ten Eyck has been an invalid over thirty years, yet is possessed of a cheerful, patient mind, and a clear and vigorous intellect, often relating incidents of the early settlements especially of Peter Emell, the Frenchman, and his Indian wife, who often called, always decorated in her best apparel to take tea with her, oftimes bringing others with her. They would follow Mrs. Ten Eyck to the chamber, cellar and garden, when she would supply them with meat and other eatables, and relating of the herds of deer that bounded through the brush and thicket that then surrounded the place, and of the wild turkeys that came and gobbled near the door feeding from the corn they found there.
     R. D. Derrick, or 'Squire Derrick, as he was called, bought 1,200 acres of land in the town Spring Grove and Decatur, and settled on section 3, in 1840. He was one of the leading men of his time.
     Henry Dixon came in January, 1843, driving a team from New York State and settled on section 2. He left some years later, and lived in Rock county for some time; but finally died in Brodhead.
    Elder G. R. Patton came from Pennsylvania, in September, 1843, and lived in this town one

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year, then removed to the town of Jefferson, where he still resides.


     Horace and Catharine Kline were the first couple married in this town. The ceremony was performed in November, 1837. James Chadwick and Nancy E. Davis were married Oct. 7, 1840. James W. Kildow and Keziah S. Davis were married Nov. 12, 1840. J.H. Clemans and Mary Kline were married in November, 1839.
     The earliest births in the town were as follows: John, a son of Horace and Catharine Griffin, was born in the fall of 1838. Doctor E., son of David and Mary Davis, was born March 12, 1839. Kate, daughter of Jacob and Rachel M. Ten Eyck, born in 1839, was the first female child born in the town.
     The first death in the town occurred in 1839; that of a man named Arnold, a brother of Mrs. Thomas Judkins. He was searching for a horse and dropped dead in the pursuit.


The first town election in Spring Grove was held April 8, 1849, at the house of Daniel Hostetter. The whole number of votes cast was sixty-eight. The following will show the candidates for the various offices and the vote polled.
Chairman of the Board.
J. W. Kildow.......................................58
R. D. Derrick.......................................16
Isaac Farmer....................................... 28
Thomas Woodle..................................49
E. B. Hillard........................................15
David Campbell..................................43
Alden Frisbee......................................50
A. D. Tenney.......................................12
Thomas Woodle..................................18
E. R. Allen...........................................39
E. B. Hillard........................................  9
A. F. Atwood......................................55
David Davis........................................  3
School Superintendent.
William B. Cooley............................... 48
A. D. Tenney.......................................19
Justices of the Peace.
R. D. Derrick.......................................15
T. Woodle...........................................60
J. W. Kildow.......................................66
David Hostetter...................................49
William Farmer...................................22
John A. Brant......................................  4
E. R. Allen...........................................41
Abner Mitchell....................................  2
E. P. Darling....................................... 81
George Farmer....................................16
B. F. Derrick.......................................15
Conrad Bender................................... 47
David Davis........................................  1
T. C. Brughslugh.................................10
A. D. Tenney ......................................  6
William Forner...................................... 1

     The inspectors of this first election were: R. D. Derrick, chairman, David Davis and Stephen Bone; clerk, A. D. Tenney.
     The present officers of the town, elected April 1, 1884, are as follows:  Supervisors, Daniel Dunwiddie, chairman; William H. Coldren and Isaac Brobst, Jr.; clerk, O. W. Martin; treasurer, J. B. O'Neal; assessor, Fred Ties; justices of the peace, J. W. Kildow, E. R. Allen and Avery Tracy; constables, J. P. Kildow, A. L. Allen and S. C. Williams.


     In 1845, mail was delivered at Monroe to be distributed by James W. Kildow, for his neighborhood. This was continued until 1848, when Mr. Kildow was commissioned postmaster of Spring Grove postoffice, supplied by the route from Rockford to Mineral Point by the way of Monroe. Mr. Kildow held the office until 1857, when he removed from the neighborhood, and Israel Lake was made postmaster.   He lived on section 24, town of Jefferson. Some years later, upon his death, the office was discontinued.
     After the office had been removed from this town, a new office was established in 1859, called Pee Dee, with George W. Zimmerman as

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postmaster, office at his residence on section 33. Route, Rockford to Monroe, J. W. Kildow, contractor.  A few months later Mrs. Keziah Kildow was made deputy, and the office removed to the residence of J. W. Kildow, on section 27. In 1862 Mr. Kildow was commissioned postmaster and kept the office until 1867, when he left temporarily, and Fred Ties was made postmaster. He kept the office on section 33, until succeeded by Mrs. Harriet C. Coulter, in January, 1869, who is now (1884) the postmistress. The office is kept at her residence on section 22.
     James R. Coulter was born in the town of Green, Richland Co., Ohio, April 1, 1820. His father, David Coulter, was a farmer.  At the age of sixteen years James was apprenticed to the trade of bricklayer and general mason work, which trade he followed until twenty-eight years old, then finding his health was failing abandoned it, and became a farmer. He was married in Ohio, Oct. 12, 1846, to Harriet Chapel, who was also a native of the town of Richland, Green county, born Oct. 3, 1819. Two years later he commenced farming, which he followed in Ohio until 1852, when glowing accounts reached him concerning Spring Grove in Green Co., Wis., and he was induced to come here.   He arrived May 28, 1852, and bought forty acres of land on section 22, and forty acres on section 28, and made his home on the former, where he has since lived. The land was all new and unimproved excepting four acres cleared. Mr. and Mrs. Coulter have not been blessed with children and have been peculiarly unfortunate with adopted children, for they Sept. 13, 1855, adopted Rossie, daughter of John A. Emminger, of Ohio; she was born May 6, 1849, and was married to Fred Ties, of this town and died in January, 1884. Simon A. Coulter, born Oct. 4, 1852, a son of Mr. Coulter's brother, F. C. Coulter, (who lived in this town from 1855 to 1857) was adopted by Mr. and Mrs. Coulter, Feb. 10, 1863, and died Sept. 24, 1876. At the time of the adoption of Simon A., Lavina Jane was adopted, who was born Jan. 16, 1861, and was married Nov. 4, 1878, to John N. Lambert, and she died Feb. 3, 1884. F. C. Coulter, the father of these last two children, enlisted in the Union army in an Iowa regiment, and died in the hospital at Keokuk late in 1862. Mrs. James R. Coulter is and has been many years postmistress of Pee Dee postoffice. The family are much esteemed through the township. Another brother, Thomas M., has made his home with them most of the time since 1855. Mr. Coulter has been justice of the peace two terms and elected the third time but would not serve. He was elected the first time in the spring 1865 and re-elected the spring of 1868, and served till the spring of 1870, and elected the third time, in 1884, but would not serve.
     Oakley postoffice was established 1861.  The present postmaster is Frank Miller.


     The first cemetery located in this town is on section 30. Mrs. Baxter, wife of Daniel Baxter—the pioneer of 1837—was the first buried there. She died in 1845.  Electa, daughter of Daniel Baxter, was the next one buried there.
     The Washington Cemetery Association was formed in January 1851, with Isaac Farmer, president; Isaac Martin, treasurer; J. G. Martin, secretary. Grounds were selected on section 23. The officers of the association in 1884 were: Daniel Brobst, president; James H. Chapel, secretary; and James R. Coulter, treasurer.
     There is a cemetery near and belonging to the Lutheran Church society, on section 28. Louis Klass is buried there.
     An old cemetery, used in the days of Clarence, is located on section 2. The place is in an open field and entirely neglected.
     A private grave yard is located on the original purchase of R. D. Derrick. Mr. Derrick and his wife, Morris and Levi Derrick, and Mrs. Borland, a daughter of Dr. Springsted, are buried here.

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     At Union on section 30, is a well kept ground.  Samuel Myers was one among the first buried there.
     Another private cemetery known as "Kline's ground," is located on section 29.  A man named Tiffany who used to run the Kline Carding mill, was the first buried there.


     Isaac Kline and his son, John, erected the first saw mill in this town on section 20, on the banks of what was then known as Mill creek, but now called Spring creek. Work upon the mill was commenced in the fall of 1837, and the mill commenced operation in May, 1839.  Only a limited power could be had here, but the mill did a successful business. It was in operation for twenty-nine years, when, in 1868, it was destroyed by fire.
     The next enterprise in the milling line was also by the Klines, in what is now Oakley. They erected in 1843 the pioneer carding mill in Green county, and its benefit and utility to the new country can hardly be overestimated. The primitive carding mill has grown to be a woolen manufacturing mill, and is now (1884) owned and operated by John Kelly.
     On section 15, on the banks of the same creek, William Bussey erected a saw mill in 1844. This mill was fairly successful and was operated until 1861, when the expense of keeping up the dam caused it to be abandoned.
     The Alden Frisbee mill was erected on section 21 in 1846. This mill was in use up to 1860.
     In 1876 William H. Freeman built a saw mill at Oakley, putting in a twenty-horse power steam engine. In 1880 he sold to the present owner, J. J. Davenport, who is doing a good business.
     The old Kline carding mill was improved by Ebenezer Hilliard, who, after he became owner, added to the power and also to fulling, cloth dressing, etc.  Later, George W. Bussey owned the property. He tore down the log building and erected the frame building as it now stands.  Bussey sold to Isaac Trombley, who sold to the present proprietor, John Kelly, July 13, 1865. Mr. Kelly has added to the main building, which was 20x30 feet in size, twelve feet each side. He has also replaced nearly all the old machinery with new.


    The first cheese factory in this town was put in operation May 20, 1879, by J.W. Westlake, proprietor.  It was run under the dividend plan three years, when he sold out to D.W. Austin.  It had the milk of about 400 cows.  Austin run the factory one year, buying the milk of the same patrons, when he sold the good-will of the establishment to the Brodhead Dairy Co., and closed up the factory.
    A stock company was organized in June, 1883.  The stockholders are: P. Atwood, James H. Chapel, P.L. Diedrick, F.H. Derrick, T.P. Stevens, Daniel Brobst, Harriet C. Coulter, Lewis Hooker, O. W. Martin, Robert Wilson, Mrs. R.M. Ten Eyck, Benjamin Stabler, Mary E. Douglas, Albert Baxter, John Frank, Albert Staff and Daniel Dunwiddie.  The officers are: P. Atwood, president; F.H. Derrick, treasurer; James H. Chapel, secretary; P.L. Dedrick, salesman; Charles Prentice, cheese maker.  The factory is located on the northwest corner of section 11.  It will use, this season, an average of 5,000 pounds of milk per day.  The factory has been a success.


    The first school house in the town of Spring Grove was erected in 1840 on section 29.  During the following winter school was taught by John Herring, and his sister Mercy.  John received $10 per month and his sister $8 for their services and they "boarded round."
    There are now eight full and one joint school districts in the town of Spring Grove.  Their conditions is shown by the following statement taken from the records:
    No. 1 has a stone school house (not in the best condition) on section 30, valued at $350; fifty-four pupils.

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    No. 2 has a frame school house on section 36, valued at $665; forty-three pupils.

    No. 3 has a new frame house on section 34, valued at $600; sixty-seven pupils.

    No. 4 has a frame house on section 21, valued $1,000; sixty-four pupils.

    No. 5 has a stone school house at Clarence on section 2, valued at $600; forty-three pupils.

    No. 6 has a frame house on section 5, valued at $600; sixty pupils.

    No. 7 has a frame house on section 14, valued at $450; thirty-nine pupils.

    No. 9 has a new frame house on section 9, valued at $1,200; thirty-nine pupils.

    Joint district No. 8 embraces territory in the towns of Jefferson and Spring Grove.  The school house is located in Jefferson.  Six pupils belonging to this district reside in Spring Grove.


    The first church in the town was erected for the Methodists, in 1845, and was located on section 30.  It was constructed of basswood hewn logs and was known all through this portion of the country as the "Basswood Church." Rev. James McClure was the first circuit rider who preached in this church.  It was finally abandoned in 1862.
    At this time the Union church was erected on section 30, at a cost of $1,400.  Its size was 28x40 feet.  The dedicatory services were held by Elder Rolfe.  In 1884 the church was being used by the United Brethrenand Lutherans on alternate Sabbaths.
    The Emanuel Evangelical church is located on section 34, near the State line.  This church was built in 1872.  It is 64x32 feet in size, has a belfry but no bell, and cost, including furniture, $2,000.  The trustees who superintended its erection were Henry Moyer, Frederich Arnsmier and G.W. Zimmerman.  In 1884 the trustees were Henry Moyer, G.W. and Henry Zimmerman.  The class leaders were G.W. Zimmerman and Henry Moyer.  The services here are conducted in the German language.
    In 1863 a Lutheran church was erected on section 28, which was commonly called the "Klaas Church," Louis Klaas having been mainly instrumental in its erection.  The building is 22x28 feet in size and cost $1,000.  In 1884 the pastor was the Rev. Mr. Schnure.


    The war veterans of Spring Grove met, pursuant to call, at the residence of J.B. O'Neal, in July, 1882, and resolved that, "Whereas, we, the old soldiers of the War for the Union, residents of the town of Spring Grove, in sacred memory of those years of war, and of our fallen heroes now buried in southern soil and in northern cemeteries, and in their honor; and that we, the survivors, may form a more perfect union,--Resolved, that we form ourselves into a company, by election of officers according to the rules and regulations of war.  Resolved, that the company be called the 'Spring Grove Reserves,' that we elect officers annually.  Resolved that the first annual meeting be held the first Saturday in June, 1883, at the residence of J.B. O'Neal.  Resolved, that we heartily cooperate with the country union in agitating for and assisting in the building of a soldier's monument for the honored dead of Green county."  An annual meeting was held June 3, 1883, and following officers were elected: Fred Ties, captain; James H. Chapel, 1st lieutenant; J.B. O'Neal, 2d lieutenant; S.C. Williams, orderly sergeant; J.P. Kildow, 1st sergeant; Jacob Haas, 2d sergeant; A.C. Chapel, 3d sergeant; David Colby, 4th sergeant.  The following is the company roll: Allen, A.J.; Brant, Samuel; Coldren, William H.; Colwell, Samuel; Davis, G.W.; Edwards, William; Hall, William; Jackson, Thomas H.; Keller, Jacob; Kline, William; Smith, S.J.; Taylor, William; Young, Isaac W.; Zimmerman, Henry; Allen, E.R.; Allen, D.C.; Dedrick, Daniel; Derrick, T.J.; Davis, James H.; Farmer, Henderson; McKinley, Leroy; Harrington, William.

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     Considerable excitement occurred over law suits growing out of the chopping down of a liberty pole—which was erected by the Union League in 1863. A few men had hated the sight of that mast ever since it was raised, and under the plea of safety of people attending the union church services, in front of which the pole was standing, caused it to be cut down. An intense excitement followed.   The war feeling with its hot feeling for and against was revived.  Suits were commenced. The offending parties were beaten in the suits.


     The village plat was located on land on section 2, which was first settled by William Sherry, in the spring of 1841.  In the fall of that year he was joined by his wife and her father. Dr. Peter Springsted, with his family, consisting of his wife and eight children; also James Sherry, a single man, brother of William. Two years later Dr. Springsted moved to section 4, and improved a farm, which is now occupied by Mrs. Mary Douglas.  The doctor and his family moved from this town to Decatur several years later and died there. None of the family are in this town at this time. William Sherry built a house and a blacksmith shop. Both families lived in this house. Sherry in 1846 sold to A. D. Tenny and settled on the place where Aug. Giese now lives. He left the town in about 1865.
     Soon after, A. D. Tenney, who came from New Hampshire, bought out Sherry.  He sold an interest in the property to B. J. Tenney, who came from Beloit (they were not of kin) Some time after this A. D. Tenney platted a part of the land and sold lots.  B. J. Tenney opened a small store. The place was known in those days as Tenneyville, and was later, in honor of Squire Derrick, called Clarence, the name of a town in which he had resided in State of New York.  H. C. Green was the next to open business. He built a bedstead and chair factory, with steam power, and operated it until 1856.   When he went to Monroe the business stopped.
     Caleb Knowles and several sons came from Winnebago Co., Ill., in 1853. Mr. Knowles was father-in-law of A. D. Tenney by his second marriage. His first wife died soon after he came here. Two of the sons, Horatio and C. C. Knowles, went to Kansas in 1859.   C. C. Knowles formerly owned the Austin farm. After the war the father and the rest of the family went to Kansas. A. D. Tenney and his family joined a spiritualist community at Harmony Springs, Ark., in 1859. He later died in Kansas.
     John B. Sawyer came from Decatur in 1853 and bought produce. He now lives in Brodhead.  Mr. Sawyer, A. D. Tenney and Horatio Knowles succeeded to the trade formerly carried on by B. J. Tenney, and owned the hotel, blacksmith shop and store.  Morris Derrick, a brother of Squire Derrick, at one time kept a small stock of groceries and liquors.  Myron Halstead in 1854 bought out Sawyer, Tenney & Knowles. He was the last merchant of Clarence.  Upon the building of the railroad, he moved his stock to Brodhead.  Dr. Towne, now of Brodhead, came to Clarence as his clerk. C. A. Warner bought the blacksmith shop in 1854, and worked there one year. He now lives on section 1. He sold to Storrs Smith, who now follows the same business in Albany. Mr. Gregory bought out Smith and closed the shop about 1859. In 1855 Thomas Martin opened a harness shop and worked two years. The old hotel building and barn have been destroyed by fire.  The post-office was discontinued in 1857.


     This little hamlet was formerly called Spring Grove. It is located on section 30. This place originated with the erection of a carding mill by Isaac Kline in 1843. The first business was opened by A. J. Hoffman, in 1847.  Many changes have taken place among those who sold goods in the one store building in the place. But among those who have been in trade

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here are remembered, John and Daniel Hauver, Mott Harrington, George Aurand and his brother.
     In 1884 Frank Miller was the only merchant.
     Samuel Mattison, the oldest in years and in service of any blacksmith in Green county, is the blacksmith of the place. He commenced here before the war, and has worked for over fifty years in iron, and moat of the time in this town.

[By Thomas A. Jackson.]

     Out of a voting population of about 250, she sent 100 soldiers to the war from first to last. The following military organizations were represented by her soldiers: The 3d, 13th, 18th, 22d, 36th, 38th and 46th Infantry regiments; the 1st, 2d and 3d Cavalry regiments, and the 1st Heavy Artillery regiment.
     3d regiment Infantry—Daniel Aughenbaugh, Joseph Boyer, Robert W. Patten and S. S. Jackson, regimental band.
     13th regiment Infantry—Ransom Condon, Ira Cleveland, Reuben H. Chapel, Austin C. Chapel, E. S. Derrick, W. Keifer, John V. Martin, W. S. Meaner, John Penn, W. H. Pomeroy, Cyrus Robinson, William H. Shaff and Charles Vanburen.
     18th regiment Infantry—James S. Alexander, William Barnhouse, Mahlon J. Bussey, Benjamin Butcher, Clinton Condon, James D. Davis, Benjamin S. Davis, George W. Davis, Theodore J. Derrick, John A. Farmer, Henderson Farmer, A. M. Kasson, Isaiah Kirby, Wilson Olds, Joseph L. Show, Frederick Teis, Chester W. Williams, Thomas A. Jackson, S. S. Jackson, Alexander Jackson and Isaac W. Young.
     22d regiment Infantry—William S. Newman, Joseph Alexander, Andrew Boyer, Fred Baker, Josiah Clawson, Allen Davis, Zachariah P. Davis, Joseph J. Davis, James F. Elliott, Peter Feathers, Henry Feathers, Jeff. Feathers, William H. Herrington, Charles Mattison, A. J. Mitchell, James Stahlrucker and George Willis.
     36th regiment Infantry—Avory S. Cole.
     25th regiment Infantry—Nelson Rice.
     38th regiment Infantry—Samuel Brandt, S. B. Caldwell, John Donyea, Oliver Gill, Isaac Kline, Philip Kilwine, Jacob Keller, George Newcomer, Joseph Newcomer, Francis Saurs and William Taylor.
     46th regiment Infantry—E. R. Allen, James H. Chapel, Henry Howard, Jacob Haas, Thomas Klumb, Thomas J. Meaner, W. A. Meaner, Isaac N. Martin, I. C. Martin, Samuel Smith, Isaac Trimbly, R. B. Fowler and Henry Zimmerman.
     1st regiment Cavalry—John B. O'Neal, John Meir, David Beaty, Warren Bates, William A. Garrison, William Gill, John Stabler and L. Shores.
     2d regiment Cavalry—John Butcher.
     3d regiment Cavalry—DeWitt C. Allen.
     1st Heavy Artillery—Joshua P. Kildow, Lovel Matthews, Thomas J. Ostrander, James Ostrander and S. Clark Williams.
     12th Battery—William Rice and Nathan Rice.
     There were a number of Spring Grove soldiers in the war who were credited to other towns on account of local bounty and other causes at time of enlistment, whose names we cannot now get at, and there may be here and there a name enumerated in the above list as credited to Spring Grove that is claimed elsewhere; but from the town records and our own personal knowledge of enlistments, we believe the above account to be substantially correct so far as it goes. We are satisfied there are some names of Spring Grove soldiers we are unable to get at, as some enlisted in Illinois regiments and were credited to that State, whose names do not appear on our home records. Among the list of names given above, the names of Benjamin S. Davis of company B, 18th Wiscon Infantry, and Zachariah P. Davis of company K, 22d regiment Infantry, was killed in battle—the former in a bayonet charge at Jackson. Miss., May 14, 1863, and the latter in the

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same manner at Resaca, Ga., during Sherman's Atlanta campaign in the summer of 1864.
     Of those who died of wounds and disease, were Ransom Condon and John Penn of the 18th Wisconsin, and William Barnhouse, John A. Farmer, Isaiah Kirby, Joseph L. Show and Chester W. Williams, of the 18th Wisconsin, company B; and George Newcomer of the 38th Wisconsin. There may be some others, but we have no knowledge who they were, if any.
     Of those who were wounded in battle and recovered, and are still living in Spring Grove and vicinity, we give the names of George W. Davis, Mahlon I. Bussey, Frederick Teis, Henderson Farmer, J. W. Young and James D. Davis, all of company B, 18th Wisconsin Volunteers, and all wounded in the charge at Jackson, Miss., on the 14tb day of May, 1863, except James D. Davis, who was wounded in Alabama with five others of company B from other parts of the county, including the names of George S. Loucks of Brodhead, who was shot through the body, the ball piercing the lungs; and J. R. Knapp, since dead; William H. Denson and George W. Webb, belonging to other towns. There are doubtless many other matters of interest pertaining to Spring Grove in the war deserving a historical record or mention, that for want of correct knowledge and information, I am not able to give. Of company B, 18th Wisconsin Volunteers, which I had the honor to command until about the close of the war, I would mention the names of Hiram E. Bailey and William H. Spencer, killed at Shiloh; John C. Bryant, killed at Corinth; James M. Carpenter, at Vicksburg, all of Green county. Of those wounded in the different engagements through which they passed during the war, and of those who died of wounds and disease from other parts of the county, for lack of a correct record of the same, we will not try to give it. There were a good many of them. At the close of the war honorable promotions were conferred on several old veterans. Commissions of captain to Henderson Farmer, and that of lieutenants to Frederick Teis and Peter Vauorman, and non-commissioned appointments of sergeants to George W. Davis and one or two others.

(By J. W. Kildow.)

To the Union Publishing Company, of Springfield, Ill.
     SIRS:—In compliance of your request for me to give you a statement of my early recollections of, and the part that I have taken therein, of the early settlement of Green county, and especially of the town of Spring Grove, in said county.  I make the following:
     In October, 1836, John Chadwick and Thomas Woodle, of Fayette Co., Penn., (the county in which I was raised) influenced by an article that appeared in the "Northwestern Gazette and Galena Advertiser," contributed to that paper by Elder Brunson, (a Methodist preacher stationed at Prairie du Chien) and copied extensively in the eastern papers, giving such glowing accounts of the fertility of the soil, and other advantages of northwestern Illinois, and southwestern Wisconsin, concluded to take a tour of observations to this country, and if they found it as represented, they would make it their future home. They did so, and each of them entered a quarter section of land. Chadwick entered his on section 2, in what is now the town of Jefferson, and Woodle, on section 35, now town of Sylvester. Upon their return home, (like the spies of old, that were sent out to view the promised land) they declared that the "half had not been told." This caused an endemic western fever. Chadwick's son James, and myself falling victims thereto. So in January, 1837, James Chadwick and myself entered into an agreement of partnership, (verbally) to come [go] out here and follow the millwrighting business, (that being my profession) and if we could not find employment at that business, to follow that of carpentering. So we set about making arrangements for an early start in the spring. In the meantime the elder Chadwick made arrangements

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with us, that we should erect for him, on his land in this county, a cabin house, as he intended to more out here as soon as he could dispose of his property there. By this time three other young men of the neighborhood, to-wit: Daniel Goodwin, William Hurlbut and Joseph Reed, concluded to accompany us, (all of us just entering upon our majority). So about the middle of February the elder Mr. Chadwick went to Bridgeport, a thriving town on the Monongahela river, sixty miles, by water, above Pittsburg, to make arrangements with the officers of the steamer, Empire, then building at that place, for our transportation to St. Louis, (her point of destination).  The officers enjoined Mr. Chadwick to have us on hand on the 23d of that month, as the boat would positively sail on that day. So on the 22d of February, 1837, in company with James Chadwick, Daniel Goodwin, William Hurlbut and Joseph Reed, I left my native home in Pennsylvania, arriving at Bridgeport that night. Upon our arrival we found that the boat was not completed, which detained us at that point several days. But we at last got off, and arrived at Pittsburg, where the steamer was to take on her furniture. But on arriving at that place, the boat's furniture was not ready, (the furniture was made at that place). After waiting a number of days, for the boat to start, we became restless under delays and demanded of the officers a return of our passage money, but after repeated promises of starting "to-morrow," and after as many failures to get off, the officers finally made arrangements with the steamer, Loyal Hannah, and we were transferred to that steamer. The next day after our transfer to the latter steamer, we got started. The boat ran down to Wheeling, Va., stopping there a number of days awaiting the arrival of the western members of Congress, (who, in those days, traveled from Washington to their western homes, by stage, to Wheeling, from thence by river steamers to points on said river, nearest their residences). But on the 10th of March, we got started from that place, having on board the great Daniel Webster, (who, that year, made his great western tour), and a number of other western notables, including the notorious G. W. Jones, delegate from this, then Territory, who acted as second for H. A. Wise, of Virginia, in the duel between Wise and Billey, which resulted in the killing of Billey. The boat having to stop at all principal places to give the great Daniel an opportunity to address the people on the political topics of the day, but more especially the great principles of the whig party.  At St. Louis, we took passage on the steamer, Astoria, for Galena, but when arriving at the mouth of Small Pox creek, the river at the head of the island was gorged with ice, so that the boat could not proceed, and not knowing when the gorge would break, we left the boat and proceeded on foot to Galena, at which place we arrived about noon the day after leaving the boat. At Galena we parted company with Goodwin, Hurlbut and Reed, they going to Mineral Point and Chadwick and myself, going (coming) to this (Green) county, leaving Galena about 2 P. M., stopping over the first night out at White Oak springs. The next morning Chadwick was quite unwell, attributing his sickness to the rancid butter that he had eaten for supper, which out-ranked any officer that was in the northwest at that time. We concluded not to take breakfast at that place. Thinking that a morning's walk of a few miles would improve Chadwick's appetite, we started, intending to take breakfast at Gratiot, which they told us was on our route, about five miles ahead, but not knowing, at that time, that two log cabins and a stable covered with straw, constituted a western village, we passed through it without stopping, wending our way across almost a trackless prairie without seeing a habitation, until we came to Wolf creek, a small tributary of the West Pecatonica, where we had to stop over night, as our next stopping would be ten miles ahead. At this place, we found two cabins and a diminutive grist mill. One of the cabins was occu-

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pied by the miller and his family, which consisted of a man by the name of Curtis and himself. The other was occupied by a man and his family, by the name of Hastings, who kept entertainment and bad whisky. After supper I went over to the mill (which was located on the opposite side of the stream from the tavern) to take a look at its working machinery, which I found to be of the most primitive order. In conversation with the miller, he told me he had bargained his mill to a man from the east whom he expected to take possession next June, and in case he sold, he intended to erect, in company with a man by the name of Gillet, a more pretentious one on Richland creek, a stream that heads in Green county, near Monroe, this mill site being at a point on said creek where Orangeville, in Stephenson Co., Ill., is now located. At the mill was a customer from Rock Grove, having a grist to grind, who said he was going to return home next day if the mill could get his grist ground out by morning, and we could accompany him as he had to go the same route, an invitation which we gladly accepted. At this place an incident occurred which for a short time affrighted us badly. On my return to the tavern from the mill I found an acquisition of some three or four to our company, who were drinking and playing cards, and I made up my mind that the place was a tough one. Chadwick being tired and unwell, had retired early. Among the guests was a man by the name of Armstrong, who resided near Wiota. Though somewhat set up, he was not taking part in their card playing. With him I soon got into conversation. He had come into the country prior to the Black Hawk War; had taken quite an active part in the war; was very communicative and inquisitive. In reply to his questions I told him where we were from; where we were going to; what our professions were; and that we had come to the country to build mills and houses, but, I continued, from the appearance of the country and the quality of the timber, (which up to this place we found to consist only of the veriest scrub burr and white oak varieties) we had a good show of starving in that line. He replied that he expected that we would have to rough it for a few years at least. As the conversation began to lag, I retired to bed, but not to sleep, for I must confess that if I ever had the blues it was at this time; but in time tired nature succumbed and I fell into a sound sleep, to be awakened by Chadwick punching me in the ribs with his elbow and whispering my attention to the fact that a person was removing the clabboards from the roof near where our bed stood. In a few moments I was completely awake. I silently raised myself on one elbow to watch the movements of the man, who, by this time, had got through into our room; and, after standing awhile and looking around, apparently in an amazed condition, he started a few steps in the direction of our bed, stopped, looked around, finally turned and walked to the other end of the room and threw himself down on some old clothes that lay in the corner of the room. By this time I was in a profuse sweat, having nothing in our possession with which to ward off an attack if the man had intended one, but I soon came to the conclusion that the man meant us no harm, as in a few minutes he was in a sound sleep and snoring loud enough to wake the seven sleepers. In the morning we told the landlord of the circumstance. He immediately went up stairs, waked the man up and brought him down. The man proved to be one of the parties of the night before, who, having filled up with bad whisky, had started for his shanty some three or four miles away; had got bewildered, and had wandered around the greater part of the night; had finally in his wanderings got back to the tavern, where (he said) he had thumped on the door to wake up the landlord, and not succeeding, concluded to gain an entrance in the manner above described. In the morning we started in company with our guide, traveling some fifteen miles or more to Brewster ferry, on the

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Pecatonica river, where was kept a small boat for the purpose of crossing. Here we found a small improvement on the south side of the river, while the dwelling stood on the north side. Here in crossing we had to (after drawing the wagon as near the water as possible) separate the oxen from the wagon, ferry the oxen over, then return for the wagon, which we had to run on the boat by hand; after crossing the wagon, hitching on the oxen and pulling the wagon up the river bank. On reaching the high prairie, east of where Oneco now stands, we separated from our guide, he pointing out to us the direction we should take to reach New Mexico, a place laid out the summer before by Jacob Andrick, intending it for the county seat of Green county, (as there was a movement on foot at that time to have a new county laid out), and containing at that time one house. At this house we inquired for a man by the name of William Woodle, (that being our point of destination), a son of the elder Thomas Woodle, who some years previous had moved to Illinois, but in 1836 had moved to this county, and had settled three miles east of where Monroe now stands. Mrs. Andrick could not tell us where he resided; had heard the name; thought he lived east of there; telling us to go about a mile northeast where we would find a store and they could inform us where he lived. After traveling the distance and direction indicated by Mrs. Andrick, we came to a log house in which was kept by a man by the name of Smith a small grocery store with a sprinkling of dry goods. Smith at the time of our arrival was shaking lustly with the ague, the first case of ague I had ever seen. At this place we learned that it was three miles to Woodle's, and being tired and hungry, having eaten nothing since early morn, we concluded to stop over night, which we did at Joseph Paine's, who, at that time, resided near the store, and kept entertainment, arriving at this place on the evening of March 30, 1837. After supper we walked over to the store, where we found several persons discussing the county seat question—some congratulating Mr. Paine and some Mr. Andrick, on having the county seat. I learned from their conversation that, in addition to Mr. Andrick's town, which he named New Mexico, Mr. Paine had laid out a town, which he called Richland City, as a competitor to Mr. Andrick's, neither of them having their plats recorded, as required by law. At the first session of the first legislative assembly, which convened at Belmont, in December, 1836, in the bill defining the boundaries of the new county was a section declaring that New Mexico should be the county seat. Mr. Paine, finding that his point could not succeed, proposed to Mr. Andrick to purchase a half-interest in his (Andrick) site, but Mr. Andrick was obdurate, and refused to sell, so Mr. Paine slipped off to Mineral Point and had his town recorded New Mexico. Now, in those days the mail arrived at this point when the mail carrier came; provided, he did not let it wash away when crossing the streams of water on his route, and the carrier would arrive once a week when the water in the streams would let him; hence, at this particular time they had not had a mail for over a month, hence they had not heard anything definite about the county seat question since the passage of the bill. The next morning on our way to Woodle's we met young Thomas Woodle, a brother of William, who was at that time making his home with William. He said he was going to the store on an errand and proposed to us to accompany him, which we did.  At the store there were several persons, and among them a big strapping Indian, who proposed to run a foot race with Woodle for the treats. Woodle accepted, the distance they were to run stepped off, the judges chosen, and the racers started. The judges decided that Woodle was the winner, but Mr. Indian refused to treat, claiming that he understood it that the one coming out ahead was to buy the whisky.  Arriving at Woodle's we concluded to rest over Sunday, visiting with the Woodle's.   The next Monday after our

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arrival, in company with the two Woodles and Joseph Smith, (a former brother-in-law of the Woodle's,) we started to look up the Chadwick land, which was five miles east of Woodle's. After finding it (which we did by means of the section and quarter stakes which the prairie fires had not yet destroyed,) and selecting a location for a cabin, we returned to the store to procure an outfit for housekeeping, which (with us) consisted of two coffee pots, two tin pans or platters, a frying pan, two tin cups, one empty oyster can, two Indian blankets, (as they were named,) one pound of coffee, a few pounds of flour, and ten pounds of bacon, (the two latter articles we procured from Daniel S. Sutherland as they was not to be had at the store.) We returned to the land and commenced operations by first putting up a small shanty to live in while building a more pretentious one.   The shanty we built out of logs, by splitting them; and for the want of better material we roofed it with brush. Having got the shanty completed the second day, we moved into it and began cutting logs for the cabin. The second night after moving into our shanty there came up a snow storm, snow falling to the depth of six inches.   Our roofing not being close enough to turn the snow, in the morning we found ourselves under a covering of three or four inches of snow; the weather turning quite cold and having about enough logs cut for a cabin we concluded to abandon the shanty for the present and go back to Mr. Paine's and try and find some way of getting our traps from Galena, as we needed some of the tools, as at that time we did not know how to build cabins without tools. Upon our arrival at Mr. Paine's (or I should rather say at the store) we found a Mr. Palmer or Parmer, who said that himself and another man (I think Mr. Lutteral) was going to start in a few days to Galena with a load of lead mineral, and was to bring back a part of a load of groceries for Mr. Smith, the merchant. Chadwick proposed to him to bring out our traps, which he consented to do, provided Chadwick would accompany them, saying he did not know what them d—n steamboat men had done with them tools, and was not going to spend time hunting them up; and as there was no other alternative Chadwick consented to go. In the mean time I agreed with Mr. Paine to work on his tavern house which he was about erecting on his town site to be used as tavern and court house, until Chadwick returned. But as Mr. Sutherland was to boss the job and lay out the work, and as Mr. Sutherland could not commence work until the following week, I had a few days of leisure which I improved by taking a stroll down Richland creek to look up any mill sites that I might find, and especially the one mentioned by Mr. Curtis in my conversation with him at Wolf creek. On my return to Paine's, the next Monday morning, I found Mr. Sutherland on hand, and I commenced work on Paine's tavern and court house, the first frame building I believe erected in Green county. In a few days after I commenced work on this building a man by the name of Burrett came to where we were working, and after a short conversation with Sutherland inquired of him if he knew of any millwrights in his (this) neighborhood, saying that, himself and a Mr. Gray of Mineral Point had entered into partnership to build a saw mill on Whiteside branch, a small tributary of east Pecatonica stating that a Mr. Armstrong (my communicative friend at Wolf creek) had informed him that a couple of millwrights a few days previous had passed Wolf creek on their way to New Mexico. Mr. Sutherland pointing to me replied, "I presume that man is the one you are looking for." I accompanied Burrett home, took a level of his mill-site, and agreed with him to build his mill the coming summer.  Burrett agreeing to let us know when he got ready to begin, as he had to build a cabin at the site to accommodate the hands employed, as his residence was at least a mile distant, and the hands would have to bach it. On my return to Paine's I again went to work on his house. On the return of Chadwick

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from Galena, (having been gone at least ten days,) we resumed work on the cabin.  On the afternoon of the following Saturday we went to Paine's (which we usually did every Saturday to stay over Sunday except when we staid at the cabin and took a stroll over the prairie and through the timber adjacent thereto) where we found a young man from Ohio by the name of John Crawford, a cousin of Chadwick, who had heard of our coming through Chadwick's folks, and had come out to take a look at the promised land.   Crawford agreed to stay and work with us during the summer, going with us the following Monday to work on the cabin. A few days after Crawford's initiation to our manner of life and mode of living, occurred one of those laughable incidents which materially assists in driving away that lonesomeness which I believe is the common inheritance of all or nearly all early pioneers of western life, who having left the advantages, pleasure and busy scenes of civilized life, and having settled in those western wilds, miles, miles from any human habitation, save that of the wild Indians, to hew out for himself and family a home. The incident was this. On one of our frequent visits to New Mexico we visited the cabin of Hiram Rust and Jarvis Rattan, located near where Monroe now is. We saw them turning their pancakes which they were cooking in their frying pan. After the pancake was sufficiently baked on the first side they would take hold of the handle of the pan, would give it a few vigorous rotary motions sufficient to loosen and give the pancake a certain rotary impetus, would suddenly change the motion of the pan to a vertical one by which means they would flop the pancake bottom side up to complete its cooking. After seeing them do it, we would for the purpose of amusement after the days work was done, practice this slight of hand performance.  Chadwick in a short time became quite an adept at it. After Crawford's arrival, Chadwick would often perform it for the purpose of showing Crawford (as he said) what could be done.   One morning while Chadwick was baking pancakes for breakfast, Crawford who was near-sighted got on the opposite side of the fire, squatted down on his haunches for the purpose (as he said) of seeing how Chadwick did it. Chadwick mistaking the degree of baking given the pancake, when he undertook to flop it over, the pancake instead of coming over doubled up and falling upon the rim of the pan, bounded into Crawford's face, but happily for him the pancake was not very hot, so that he was but little burnt; but it made Crawford terrible mad and he was for whipping Chadwick thinking that Chadwick had done it intentionally, but upon Chadwick's solemn protestation of innocence and myself keeping in between them for a few minutes, Crawford's good nature (and he had a good share of it) returning the thing passed off pleasantly, but it gave us a full half hour's good laughing.  The cabin completed we gathered up our traps taking them to Woodle's. Next day went to Paine's where we worked on Paine's house two or three days, when Mr. Burrett came after us to commence work on his mill. Arriving at the cabin we found four hands employed in its completion, whom Burrett had engaged to work on the dam and mill pit. Here we had to bach it and although we, us millwrights, were exempt from any cooking, as Burrett in his contract had to furnish the cook, but often did I think of and endorse the sentiment of the miner when lying in his bunk and looking at his partner getting their breakfast, exclaimed: "Joe, there has an idea struck me." "The devil," replied Joe.  "I would rather believe that lightning would strike you, but since you have been blest with a stroke pray tell us what it is." "Well," replied Jim, "while I have been lying here and looking at you trying to fork that meat out of the fire where you spilled it, by upsetting the frying pan in which it was cooking, while you was trying to get them potatoes out of the ashes where you put them to roast, what a great invention woman was."  After we had been at work on

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the mill a short time we received word that the elder Mr. Chadwick had moved to the country and was settled in the cabin and requested us to pay them a visit, so on the following Saturday we started on foot a distance of twenty miles to visit them; the day being one of those cool, drizzling, rainy days in May, which frequently occurs in this country. When getting within a mile or a mile and a half of the Chadwick cabin we came to a cabin in which a man by the name of Joseph Woodle and his family was living, who had come from Pennsylvania, and who had built his cabin since we had left. We stopped to have a hand-shake, and it being near evening they insisted that we should take supper with them, which we did, as we had had nothing to eat since morning. By the time supper was over the sun was down. We started to find Chadwick's, but instead of going around the timber (both of the cabins being in the edge of the timber, the one occupied by Woodle on the north edge and the one by Chadwick on the south) as we had been in the habit of doing, we concluded that we could save time and distance by going through it, but in doing so we missed the cabin, and when we came to the prairie we became bewildered and did not know which way to go, as by that time it had got very dark, but like all lost persons each had his course marked out, and each one knew his course was right, so in turn each would lead awhile until we became satisfied that each one was lost, and coming to a precipice (over which Chadwick fell) we concluded to call a halt and put up for the night, but as our clothes were thoroughly wet and the night cold, and having no means of making a fire we could not stop traveling. So selecting a large white oak tree (we did not know at that time that it was white oak) on the top of the bluff we walked around it all night, and I thought it the longest. night ever made. Before leaving it I took my knife and made a peculiar mark in the bark so that if I should see it again I would know it. When daylight came we concluded to travel west as we were satisfied that we were east of Richland timber, and if we could strike that timber we could find some settler, but as it was still very cloudy and as we were lost we could not tell which way west lay, but determined to strike out and try to find a section stake which would decide the course for us to take.  After traveling a short distance in a southeast course we came to the section stake at the southeast corner of section 16, in what is now the town of Spring Grove. We then started west through the timber and on coming out on the prairie at the southwest corner of Spring Grove timber we came across John Kline, who had a few days previous moved to the country from Laporte Co., Ind., and who at the time was encamped in his wagons on section 29; his father having the fall previous entered land on that section. Kline at that time was going across to Richland timber to try to find an old neighbor of his by the name of Harcourt, who the previous year had moved to the country and settled somewhere near Richland creek. We told him how we were lost and had lain out all night, and inquired if he could direct us to a resident by the name of Chadwick who had just moved into the country.   He said that he could, as his wife's uncle, a man by the name of Riley, had been out and had entered land at a grove a few miles north of us and that his (Riley's) land joined that of lands owned by that name (Chadwick). We went with Kline to the divide between the waters of Spring and Richland creeks where he pointed out to us the timber grove where his uncle Riley had made his entry. Kline finding out that we were millwrights said that his father and himself intended to build a saw mill the coming fall, and that his father intended to bring a millwright from Indiana, but if we would do the work he would induce his father to leave the millwright at his home. We arrived at the cabin that afternoon, and found Mr. Chadwick's folks much excited, as Woodle, the man we had taken supper with the night before, had come to Chadwick's that fore-

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noon to visit with us, and inquiring for us was told that we were at work on Burrett's mill, when he related the circumstances of our leaving his residence the night previous about sundown. Mrs. Chadwick insisted that her, husband and Woodle should immediately start out to look us up as she believed that we had either perished or were scalped by the Indians, as a number of them had passed in sight of the cabin the previous day; the latter she insisted being the more reasonable conclusion, Mr. Chadwick and Woodle, taking their guns with them, went to the highlands southwest of the cabin and saw us ascending on our way to the cabin from the south, all parties arriving at the cabin nearly at the same time. We completed the Burrett & Gray saw mill the latter part of September, as the work was materially delayed for the want of the irons, as they had ordered them from St. Louis and from some unexplained cause they did not arrive for two months after being ordered. After the completion of the saw mill, we commenced work on the Kline saw mill, the first mill erected in the town of Spring Grove. After getting out the timber for the mill, cold weather setting in, we suspended work on the mill and went to Galena for the purpose of getting work in some of the shops, but failing in this we hired to a contractor to assist in getting out timber for some buildings to be erected in that place the next spring. We went upon an island in the Mississippi river, a few miles below that place to obtain the timber. After we had got out a quantity of timber, the sheriff, at the instance of the county commissioners, came to the island and attached it, the commissioners claiming that the timber belonged to the county, under an act of Congress giving to the different counties all the unsold overflowed lands lying within the county. Again being without employment, we concluded to take a stroll through Iowa, finally turning up in Burlington, where the second session of the first legislative assembly was in session (Wisconsin and Iowa being at that time under the same Territorial government). Upon our arrival at that place we called upon our representative (William Boyls) from this county, who informed us that he had introduced a resolution in the assembly that would settle our county seat question, and kindly invited us to call in the next day, which we did in the afternoon, when we found Mr. Boyls' resolution under consideration. The resolution, in brief, was one defining what was the intention of the former session in locating the county seat of Green county, declaring that the intention of the legislature was to locate the county seat at the point known as Andrick Town. Now, to a novice like myself, I did not think there would be any opposition to its passage, but I was mistaken, for it met with a most determined opposition from a number of members. Finally the measure was disposed of by a member moving an amendment to strike out the words "Andrick's Town" and insert '"New Mexico," which prevailed, thus leaving the question as it was. From Burlington we went to St. Louis, and upon the opening of navigation in the spring we returned to Green county and again commenced work on Kline's mill. While at work on the mill, in one of our strolls through the timber, we came across the tree that we had tramped around the greater part of the night in May, 1837; it stood on the bluff, near the center of section 16. After the partial completion of the mill there arose a misunderstanding between the Kline's and a neighbor by the name of Judkins about the water flow of Judkins' land.  Work on the mill was suspended. We then went to work on a small grist mill for Dr. Vanoaljah, on Cedar creek, in Illinois, and afterwards on a saw mill on Richland creek. In October, this year (1838), I was taken down with the typhoid fever at Mr. Chadwick's, where I lay a number of weeks, hovering between life and death, the doctors and everybody else, including myself, believing that I could not possibly live. But through a vigorous constitution, and the kind care and at-

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tention that I received from Mother Chadwick, I finally recovered; and here let me record, for the gratification and encouragement of her descendants, that if there ever was a mother, Mother Chadwick proved to be one to me at that time, and as long as memory holds its sway will I ever remember with gratitude with what care, sympathy and patience she administered to my wants on that occasion. But that is long years ago, and Mother Chadwick has long since passed to her final rest and reward, while I am left here to struggle on only a few years longer, at best. After my recovery we built a small house and barn for Levi Wilcox, some three or four miles south of where Cedarville now stands. In March, this year (1839), having learned of the death of my father, I concluded to visit my old home in Pennsylvania, but being detained so much in Galena and other points on the river between there and St. Louis, on account of low stage of water in the river and the sinking of the steamer on which I had taken passage, I concluded to return, having, previous to starting, agreed to build a barn for Mr. Chadwick the coming summer. I returned in May, and we finished and started the Kline saw mill that month, as, previous to that time, Kline and Judkins had settled their difficulty, and Judkins had deeded to Kline a right of flow.   After starting the mill we went to work on Chadwick's barn. And here I must relate a circumstance that shows what manner of man Jacob LyBrand was, who at that time kept a variety store in New Mexico. While working on the roof of the barn I broke my hatchet. The shingles for the roofing being made out of hard wood, and no pains being taken to joint the edges, it was impossible to lay even a fair roof without some means of straightening their edges. It's true, we might have fastened them in the bench vise and taken a plane or draw-shave to them, but this was a feat that I felt no disposition to undertake, so I went to New Mexico to buy one of LyBrand, knowing that he kept them on hand.  After looking them over and inquiring the price, (which I thought was enormous,) I asked LyBrand if his price was not pretty steep. "Why,'' he replied, "do you think it too much?" I said I thought that it was, whereupon he laid the hatchet back on the shelf. I then went to where some carpenters were at work on a building near by, thinking to borrow one, but they having none they could spare, I went back to the store, intending to buy. Upon going in I said to LyBrand that I guessed I would have to take that hatchet. He replied that I could not have it. "Why not?" I said. He replied, "Did you not say that the price was too much? And I don't intend any person shall buy any article of me that says the price is too much." I then related to him the circumstance of my breaking the hatchet, and the necessity of my having one. He said, "Oh, I will loan it to you," which he did.  After I got through using it I returned it, proposing to pay him for the use of it, but he refused to take anything for the use of it. After completing the barn we went south of Cedar creek and built a house and small barn for Dr. Vanvalzah, on his farm, he having previously sold his mill property on Cedar creek to Mr. Neightic. The winter of 1839-40 we ran the Wilcox saw mill, on Richland creek. In the summer of 1840 we built a house near Cedarville for Reason Wilcox, and a barn at Walnut Grove for John Kleckner. In October, of this year, Chadwick took unto himself a life partner, marrying a daughter of Deacon David Davis; and I, feeling unwilling, if not unable, to fight the battle of life single handed, concluded to take a partner, choosing for this purpose a sister of Chadwick's wife, and no time throughout our married life have I regretted the choice I—or rather, I should say she made, for in my opinion, in this matter of marrying the girls have it all their own way, for Shakespeare, or some other person who has had experience in these matters, truly says that—

"When a woman will, she will, and you may depend on it;
But when she won't, she won't, and that's the end on it."
The result of this double marriage was the dissolution of partnership between Chadwick and

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myself—a partnership that had lasted nearly three years, and during all this time, so far as I know, there was not a harsh word or unkind feeling existed between us. Shortly after marrying, Chadwick settled on and opened up a farm on section 22, in now the town of Jefferson, this county, and myself on section 19, town of Spring Grove.  In the spring of 1841 I built a house for Samuel Myers, at the then saw mill of Kline & Myers (formerly Kline's mill), on section 20, being the first frame built in the town.  In the summer, fall and winter of this year, I did a number of jobs in the neighborhood, laying floors, (which formerly consisted of hewed puncheons,) making doors, putting in additional windows, etc., in houses, as the lumber for that purpose could be obtained at the saw mill. In the summer of 1842 I built a barn for John Kline on section 29, now owned by Hugh Alexander, the first frame barn erected in the town, and in the fall I assisted in the building of a store house for John Fisher, in Rock Grove. The winter of 1842-3 was an unprecedented hard one, snow falling to the depth of one foot or more, on the 12th of November, and by March had accumulated to fully three feet, and continued to lay on until in April. The month of March was terrible cold, the thermometer at Rock Grove ranging from one to six degrees below zero every morning throughout the month, except the last morning, when it commenced thawing, and a great number of cattle throughout the country died from exposure. In the spring of 1843 I built the carding mill on Spring creek for Kline & Myers. After completing the carding mill, I was employed by a Boston company to run a grist mill at Winslow; they having erected one there in 1841. I ran the mill until the following May. Returning to Spring Grove, I built the second saw mill on Spring creek, on section 15, for William Bussey. This summer (1844) was a terrible wet one, raining almost continuously from March to September. Work on the mill was much delayed on account of the rain and high water in the creek. We laid the foundation timbers for the mill three different times, and as often having them washed out. At one time some of them being washed two miles below. The wheat and oats crops were nearly ruined by the continuous wet weather. In the fall of this year I built myself a new residence, on section 30, being the second frame house built in the town. This winter (1844-45) the residents of Spring Grove and adjacent country petitioned the postoffice department for a postoffice to be named Spring Grove, and located at my residence and the appointment of myself postmaster. This request the department refused to grant, on the ground that the office asked for was not on any established mail route. The residents then entered into an arrangement whereby each one was in turn to carry the mail from Monroe and Rock Grove, the nearest postoffices to this point, and through the kindly intercession of Mr. Walworth, then postmaster at Monroe, I was granted permission to handle the mail and account to Mr. Walworth (a kind of side office). In 1847 or 1848 Congress established a mail route from Rockford, by way of Monroe to Mineral Point, and the office was included in the lettings, and I was commissioned, postmaster. This office I held until the summer of 1857, when I resigned, as I intended to change my residence to a more easterly part of the town, for the purpose of farming, as I had become tired of carpentering, having to be absent so much from my family, a profession that I have since followed, except at short intervals, when I would starve out at it, and was forced to resort to the tools to replenish my larder. Upon my resigning the postoffice the patrons of the office petitioned for the appointment of Matt Herrington as my successor. Herrington & Hauver at that time, were in trade at what is now called Oakley. The department referred the application to Alpheus Goddard, then postmaster at Monroe (that being the role of the department at the time).  Mr. Goddard being an uncompromising demo-

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crat and a firm believer in the Jacksonian policy, that to the victors belong the spoils, refused to endorse Mr. Herrington upon the ground that Mr. Herrington could not repeat the party shibboleth, and not finding a democrat to his liking in the neighborhood who would accept the office, the office was transferred into the town of Jefferson, two miles northwest of its then location, and Israel Lake appointed postmaster. After the removal of the office it became very inconvenient to those patrons living in the east part of the town, so they petitioned the department for a new office to be named Pee Dee, and located at the northeast corner of section 33, and with our recent experience in choosing an incumbent, we thought best to select a democrat for that position. This office was established in June or July, 1859, with G. W. Zimmerman postmaster. In a short time Zimmerman becoming tired of the office, as it interfered too much with his farm duties, he arranged with my wife to run the office as deputy, and the office was transferred to my house, on section 18. In the fall of 1862 we were having a very exciting congressional election, growing out of our diversity of views on the war measure. The State central committee (of which Mr. Rublee was chairman) sent to the office (directed to the postmaster,) a package of political documents, including the address of the central committee with a request that the postmaster distribute this package (as was the rule with all packages so directed), was given to the postmaster, who upon receiving it declared he would not distribute them, saying that if the committee wanted them distributed they could come and do it themselves. Upon hearing this I wrote the chairman that in the future in sending such documents to the office, to direct them to either E. R. Allen or myself, saying that the postmaster was an old line democrat having no sympathies with the republican party, not even suggesting a change, when in less than a month, I received a commission as postmaster, with a notice to the incumbent to turn the office over to me, which was the cause of two of the most surprised men ever in the town. This office I held until 1867, when I resigned (having sold my farm) for the purpose of changing my location, and Fred Teis was commissioned my successor, who ran the office a short time, resigned, and the present incumbent, Mrs. Coulter, was commissioned.  In 1868 I moved with my family to Kansas, intending to make that State my future home, but becoming dissatisfied with the country, I returned in 1870, with broken health and $800 out of pocket, to Spring Grove, where I intend to reside until the Master calls, "Come Home.'' In politics, from boyhood I was a firm believer in those divine truths as promulgated from that immortal instrument, the Declaration of Independence and corner-stone of our American edifice, that all men are created equal, and from early manhood I have been a persistent advocate of those truths, and when in 1842, the first political anti-slavery society was organized in Green county, I was one of the immortal seven (as we were facetiously called) that assisted in its organization, and continued a member of that party until 1854, when the party was merged in the republican party, and have been a member of that party up to the present time; and I have voted at every election that has been held in the county since its organization, excepting the two years that I resided in Kansas.  Upon the temperance question my neighbors say I am fanatical, and perhaps I am so, as I have not taken any alcoholic or fermented beverages for over fifty years, and I can see nothing but evil, and only evil, in its use. I am also a strenuous advocate of woman franchisement, as I cannot comprehend by what theory or law of creation men have rights that women are not entitled to; and I fully endorse the exclamation of the old deacon, who, when his elder was preaching, (his subject being man) said when he spoke of man he included woman as by creation they were the same as man, with a little variation," exclaimed, "Yes, bless God."
    SPRING GROVE. March, 1884.

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     The following biographical sketches of prominent citizens of the town of Spring Grove, will give an idea of the enterprise and thrift of this town:
     Mrs. Mary Clemans, the widow of J. H. Clemans, lives on section 22, town of Spring Grove. She is a daughter of Isaac Kline, who settled in this town in May, 1837. Daniel Baxter (who came the same year) and Mr. Kline were the first two permanent settlers in this town. Mrs. Clemans was born in April, 1822. In November, 1839, she was married to J. H. Clemans, and settled the next year on the place where Mrs. Clemans now lives. To them were born nine children—Catharine, now wife of Samuel J. Smith; Isaac, now living in Todd Co., Minn.; Jane, deceased, wife of Jacob Newcomer; Eliza Ann, now wife of Ira Mellen, of Yankton, Dak.; Elizabeth, who died when four years old; Thomas J., who lives with his mother; Charles A., now living at Yankton, Dak.; Lucinda, now wife of Francis Jenkins, of Todd Co., Minn., and Estella, wife of Henry Long.  Mrs. Clemans was bereaved by the death of her husband in April, 1877. He was formerly from Kentucky, and came to Green county in 1838. Thomas J. Clemans, who lives with his mother on the old homestead, was married Nov. 29, 1874, to Polly, daughter of J. W. Kildow. The have two children— Orpha G., born Nov. 1, 1880, and James F., born Oct. 12, 1875.
     Mrs. Elizabeth A. Davis lives on section 30, occupying the same land settled upon by her husband,  Archibald Davis and herself, July 7, 1838.  Mrs. Davis was born in Pocahontas Co., Va., April 1, 1812. She is now (1884) vigorous, doing all the house work, and attending to care of stock, etc. She was married Sept. 19, 1834, to Archibald Davis. His father, Jeremiah Davis, moved from Maryland to Warren Co., Ind., in 1822, where he died Jan. 10, 1853. His wife, Mary Davis, died there Oct. 2, 1863. Mrs. Elizabeth A. Davis' father settled in Warren Co., Ind., in 1830, where he died. His wife died there also in 1832. Archibald Davis had two children by a former marriage, who made a part of the family when they came to this town. Their names were - Mary, who married James Kenyon, who died in 1863; Jeremiah, in Warren Co., Ind., in 1853. By the second marriage of Archibald and Elizabeth A. Davis. The children born are—James D., who served in company B, 18th Wisconsin Volunteers, and now lives in Brodhead; Sarah C. M, wife of John Ostrander; Benjamin S. also served in company B, 18lh Wisconsin Volunteers, and was killed in a bayonet charge at the battle of Jackson, Miss.; George W., member of same company and regiment; Rachel J., wife of Samuel Brant; Nancy E. and Archibald A., both living in this county; Elizabeth A., wife of John Massy, of Benton Co., Ind.; Maria V., wife of John Alexander, of Durand, Ill.; Nancy E, wife of Philip Kilwin, of Decatur.  Mr. and Mrs. Davis came from Warren Co., Ind., to this town.  Mr. Davis was a great hunter and fond of the chase. Many an early settler was indebted to his prowess for his fresh meat. Mr. Davis was a good specimen of a pioneer, active, full of life and energy, generous and true to his friends. He died Dec. 30, 1879, aged nearly seventy-four years.
     George Davis, son of the early settlers, Archibald and Elizabeth A. Davis, is one of the first born of the town of Spring Grove, that event having occurred Jan. 24, 1842. He lived with his parents, working on the farm and attending school winters until he reached manhood, or nearly so, when he enlisted in company B, 18th Wisconsin Volunteers, and one week from the day of leaving the State was in the battle of Pittsburg Landing, a rough beginning for a soldier boy. He participated in every engagement of the regiment until the battle of Jackson, Miss., May 14, 1863, when he was wounded and taken prisoner, and carried east to Libby prison at Richmond, and later released on parole, and taken to Annapolis, Md., and then

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sent to the parole camp at St. Louis. In December, 1863, he was exchanged, and rejoined the regiment at Huntsville, Ala. He was in the campaign against Atlanta, and in the heroic battle at Allatoona Pass. Mr. Davis has a trophy captured in that battle, a Queen Anne musket full six feet in length, captured on the skirmish line. Veteranizing with a part of the regiment, he returned to Wisconsin on a furlough in December, 1864. Then returning to the command rejoined Sherman's grand army at Goldsboro, N. C., in April,1865. He was in the battle of Kingston, N. C., and was in line at the grand review of the army at Washington in June, 1865, and was mustered out with the regiment at Milwaukee. Mr. Davis was married to Ann E. Brant, daughter of John A. Brant, Oct. 1, 1865, and commenced keeping house on seventy acres of land purchased from his father on section 30. He has since added eighty acres of adjoining land in the town of Jefferson. They have a very comfortable home enlivened by four children—Francis E., born Oct. 25, 1866; Mattie J. born July 8, 1869; Judd E., born Aug. 24, 1870; and George B., born June 10, 1873. From 1866 to 1883, with the exception of one year, Mr. Davis has served as justice of the peace. He is a member of the W. W. Patton, G. A. R. Post, No. 90.
     Thomas Hamilton lives on section 34. He has a farm of 240 acres, with fine buildings. He was born in the State of Indiana Aug. 4, 1822. When quite young, his father, George Hamilton, moved to Edgar Co., Ill., where he died in 1842. When sixteen years of age, Thomas took his fortune in his own hands. Leaving home he went to Winnebago Co., Ill., worked at farm work until 1842, when he came to Green county. The first few years he worked summers in the villages of the county, and in the winter in the pineries, running in the season on rafts below; thus he was occupied until he was married in 1845. His wife was Levanche Randall. By this marriage six children were born, five of whom are living—George, residing in Brodhead; Thomas, of Winnebago Co., Ill.; Alexander, in the same county; Emma, wife of Myron Bliss, of Winnebago Co., Ill; Eva, wife of F. Burke, resides at Virginia City, Nev.; Lenora, wife of Isaac Davis.  She died at the residence of her father in February, 1875. In March, 1866, Mr. Hamilton was bereaved by the death of his wife. He was again united in marriage with Mrs. Jane Forbes. widow of Isaac Forbes. She was living at the time of marriage in Davids township, Stephenson Co., Ill. By her first marriage she had two children—Emma and William. Emma married Mr. Hamilton's son, George. William Forbes is married and lives in Brodhead. Thomas Hamilton has by his second wife five children—Walter E., born in 1868; Josephine E., born in 1870; Kate Maud, born in 1873; Scott, born in 1878; and Eleanor, born in 1881.
     Daniel Dedrick was born in Herkimer Co., N. Y., Feb. 22, 1836, and came to this town with his father's family in 1842. His father, Nicholas Dedrick, came from Cattaraugus Co., N. Y. Daniel lived with his father until 1847, in which year, March 3, he was married to Melissa A. Ward, who was born in Michigan. Her mother was the second wife of Daniel Vanderbilt. Mrs. Dedrick has one boy—Eddie Dedrick, living in Topeka, Kansas, and a daughter, Lovinna, also at Topeka, Kansas. After marriage Mr. and Mrs. Dedrick moved to Durand, Wis., and later a short distance out in Bear creek valley, taking a homestead claim, and working at carpenter's trade, in which work he was engaged at the outbreak of the Civil War. He enlisted Aug. 9, 1862, in company G, 25th Wisconsin Volunteers, and served two years and two months, when he was discharged on account of disability. After this he moved to Pontiac, Mich. Remaining there only a few months, he went to the oil country in Venango Co., Penn., locating at Rouseville. He there engaged in livery and express business and kept a boarding house three years or more, but domestic trouble caused a separation from his

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wife. Then he gave up his town business and became a contractor for drilling oil wells, and followed that occupation until he lost his property. He returned to Spring Grove in 1877, and bought lot 6, on section 2, thirty-three acres, where he now (1884) resides in a house built by an old settler, B. J. Tenney, who about thirty-four years ago sold out and went to Salt Lake with the Mormons. Mr. Dedrick's present wife was Sarah Jane Gordan. He was married to her in June, 1870. She was born in Pennsylvania. Their first child, Charlie, died at the age of thirteen months.  They have two daughters—Mabel F. M., born May 15, 1872, and Zada Bell, born Jan. 11, 1880.
     Charles A. Warner was born in Madison Co., N. Y., June 20, 1820. He learned the blacksmith's trade when a boy and at nineteen years of age was out from his apprenticeship. In May, 1842, he came west to Milwaukee, and in September of that year to this county, buying 160 acres of land on section 11, town of Sylvester, remaining only long enough to commence some improvements. He went to Southport, on Lake Michigan (now Kenosha) and worked at his trade the following winter, returning to improve his land the summer of 1843. In the fall he returned to Southport and remained there at work until the fall of 1844, when he went to McHenry Co., Ill. There he ran a shop which he owned four years, then in the fall of 1848 he returned to this county and located in the village of Decatur, then about to be platted. While in McHenry county, Mr. Warner was married to Elizabeth Ward, Dec. 7, 1847.  She was born in Vernon, Oneida Co., N. Y. At Decatur Mr. Warner built a shop and worked there about eight years, when (1856) he moved his family to the village of Clarence, in order to be able to improve 192 acres of land which he had some years previously bought on section 1, town of Spring Grove. Mr. Warner worked at his trade a short time in Clarence, but in the spring of 1857 made his residence on his land on section 1, where he now (1884) lives. Mr. and Mrs. Warner have had four children born to them—Ella E., born Nov. 1, 1849, now wife of Willie D. Bigelow, of Sun Prairie, Wis.; Francis Ward, born Nov. 20, 1851, and died Sept 26, 1856; Charles M., born July 8, 1857, and now lives at home; Catharine C., born July 18, 1861, now living at home. Mr. Warner has led an active life, never idle in his younger days, if not hard at work, could generally be depended upon to bring in game or fish. He and Dr. Springsted were fast friends, and it was a bad day for all kinds of game, when they started out for a hunt. Mr. Warner speaks kindly of his old friend as a man, and of his skill as a physician.
     Daniel Dunwiddie, one of the pioneers of Green county, is living on section 6. His fine farm comprises lots 3,4 and 5, fractional additions to section 6, 127 acres, and fifteen acres of adjoining land. He also owns twenty acres of valuable timber near by in Decatur. He has occupied this place since 1847. Mr. Dunwiddie was born in Green Co., Ohio, Jan. 6, 1822, and is a son of John Dunwiddie, who reared a family of eleven children, ten boys and one girl, all of whom lived to be married, and rear families. Seven of the family were living in 1884. At the age of twenty-one, (1843) the subject of this sketch came to Green county, and lived with his uncle, Thomas Woodle, an early settler. In 1846 he bought the southwest quarter of section 34, in the town of Sylvester, and in December of that year was married to Rebecca Austin. She was born in Burlington Co., N. J., but at the time of her marriage was a resident of Kosciusko Co., Ind. Her parents were, for nine years, residents of Green Co., Ohio, and it was there that Mr. Dunwiddie formed her acquaintance. Mr. and Mrs. Dunwiddie first settled on his land in Sylvester and after living there one year, he sold, and purchased his present farm. They have had nine children born to them—Priscilla, wife of John Swan, born Feb. 5, 1846; Ezra, born Jan. 12, 1848; Celista, wife of Alonzo Barnes, born Nov.

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2, 1849; John M., born Dec. 1, 1851; Louisa, born June 29, 1854, and died April 23,1856; Theresa, born Dec. 4, 1856, now the wife of W. F. Holcomb of Yankton, Dak; Idella, born Sept. 17, 1861, now the wife of Charles Cronk, of Dane county; Minnie, born Oct. 30, 1863, and died May 5, 1866; and Myrtle, born Dec. 15, 1865, and living at home with her parents. Mr. Dunwiddie is an active, public-spirited citizen, and has served as town supervisor fifteen or sixteen years, a part of the time as chairman.
     Moses Kirby was born near Oldtown, Hampshire Co., Va., in 1812. While a child his parents, James and Prudence Kirby, emigrated to Pickaway Co., Ohio. His mother died there and in 1828 his father moved from there to Vermilion Co., Ill. His father died some years later near Vincennes, Ind. The subject of this sketch was married in 1833 to Rachel Corry, and ten years later removed to Stephenson Co., Ill., and in the fall of the same year settled in Spring Grove, buying 160 acres of land on section 26 where he now lives. Mr. and Mrs. Kirby have had six children—Julia Ann, wife of William Clements, residing in Champaign Co., Ill.; John, living in the same county; Isaiah went with company B, 18th Wisconsin Volunteers, and found a soldier's grave at Corinth, Tenn.; Elisha, living in Spring Grove; Lovina, wife of Polk Waller, of Winnebago Co., Ill., and Mary, married to Leroy J. Mc Kinley. She and her husband live with Mr. Kirby on the old homestead. They were married July 30, 1869. They have had five children, three of whom are living—Olive, born Oct. 4, 1870; Myrtie, born Dec. 31, 1880; and Arthur, born May 16, 1883. The two deceased are—Jennie, born Dec. 21, 1874; died Sept. 5, 1876. Warren, born June 1, 1877; died April 12, 1880. Mr. McKinley's father is William McKinley, a merchant in Rockford, Ill. Leroy J. was born in Winnebago Co., Ill., April 20,1849. When a few weeks of age his mother died, and he was reared by Mr. and Mrs. James Waller of Avon, Rock Co., Wis.
     William H. Oneall was born in Warren Co., Ind., Feb. 15, 1829. His father, Robert E. Oneall, came to this town in its early days, going in 1843, from Warren Co., Ind., he rented a farm of the old settler, Samuel Myers, on section 19, where he lived one year; then on Mr. Judkins' farm two years. Mr. Oneall brought quite a large family here, consisting of a wife and seven children—Susan, now married to Philo Tracy, and living in Buchanan Co., Iowa; William H., the subject of this sketch; Rebecca, was married to Matthew Farmer, and died in Buchanan Co., Iowa; Martha Jane, who was married to P. Atwood, and died Nov. 22, 1882; Thomas K., who lives in Benton Co., Iowa; Mary Ann, who was married to William Kline, and died in 1864; Elizabeth R., who was married to Peter Albert, and now living in Buchanan Co., Iowa. There were born to the parents, six children, after their settlement in this town —Sarah E., who was married to Charles Morton, and lives in Parker, Dak.; John B., who lives in this town; Alexona, who is the wife of Joseph Keihle, and lives in Independence, Iowa; Edwin and Robert E., who died quite young; and Charlie, now living in Nebraska. Mr. Oneall bought on section 36, a claim, (now owned by Cyrus Putnam), and lived there several years, then moved to Richland Grove, and subsequently bought prairie land in the town of Jefferson. He shortly sold this land, and went to Iowa, leaving his family here. Engaging in business in Iowa, he made an occasional trip back to visit his family. While on one of these trips coming home, he was taken sick, and died not far from home, after a short illness, in May, 1854. His wife died Jan. 10, 1855. William H. Oneall was married to Marcia Jones, Aug. 3, 1856. She was born in Ashtabula Co., Ohio, and was a daughter of James Jones, an early settler of Rock Co., Wis. They have six children—Teta Jane, born July 6,1857,who was married to George Johnson, and now lives in San Francisco; Cynthia L., born Sept. 3, 1858, now wife of Oliver W. Martin; Florence A., who lives at home;

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Wyatt E., born May 14, 1866, at home; Catharine V., born April 15, 1871, at home; and Ora E., born Oct. 27, 1874, at home. Mr. and Mrs. Oneall commenced their married life where they now live. It was formerly the home of their mother, and at that time contained eighty acres. It was an old farm, settled back in 1841 by Aaron Cooley. It is located on section 22. Mr. Oneall lives on section 15, and there owns 120 acres, and owns also 130 acres on section 16. He is one of the sterling men of the town, and has served the public on the board of supervisors.
     John B. Oneall, son of the old settler, Robert E. Oneall, was born Dec. 21, 1844. After the death of his father and mother, which occurred when John was about ten years old, he was partially homeless, and consequently was early thrown upon his own resources. The first year after his parent's death, he went to Iowa and lived for a time with a married sister. Coming back, he lived until about nineteen years old, with his brother, William H. Oneall, then with a young, patriotic impulse, he enlisted in the army, in company B, 1st Wisconsin Cavalry, Aug. 23, 1863. He participated in twenty-four engagements, among them, were Dandridge, in east Tennessee, and one near Dalton, Ga., May 9, 1864, and last, but not least, the one at West Point, Ga. He was always on duty, and never, except to visit sick comrades, saw the interior of a hospital. He was honorably discharged with the regiment, July 19, 1865. Feb. 14, 1867, he was married to Mary A., daughter of Charles Woodling, who came here from Indiana, in 1846. He was born in Union Co., Penn., and went to Indiana in 1837. He was one of the sterling men of early days, in Spring Grove. The newly married couple settled on the Woodling estate, in the place his wife's father had lived, who died in November, 1852. His widow subsequently was married to William Farmer. She died July 4, 1871. The present home of the subject of this sketch was occupied by him in September, 1871. It was the property of Mrs. Oneall's mother, at the time of her death. The farm is a very valuable one, with good improvements and fine buildings. They have two children—Carie J., born March 23, 1868; Hancy A., born Oct. 13, 1870. Mr. Oneall is one of the trusted citizens of Spring Grove town, and is now (1884), town treasurer. He has served three terms on the town board of supervisors, and is a man of excellent reputation.
     William H. Coldren has lived on section 5, town of Spring Grove, since November, 1873. His farm of 145 acres is known as the "Kline place" having been the home of an old settler named John Kline. Mr. Coldren was born in Warren Co., Ind. His father, William Coldren, in 1844 with his wife and seven children settled in the town of Jefferson.   The children were—Margaret, Martha, Matilda, Reuben, Minerva, William, Orth, and one was born in Wisconsin, Evaline. Margaret and Matilda are not now living. The father and mother were both living in 1884. The subject of this sketch, William H., enlisted in the War for the Union in August, 1862, in company K, 22d regiment, Wisconsin Volunteers, and served until the regiment was mustered out after the close of the war.   He was never in the hospital but always in the ranks, and was in every engagement in which the regiment participated, from the first at Spring Hill to the last at Averysboro, N. C.   He was in the battles about Atlanta, and with Sherman on the memorable march to the sea and up through the Carolinas to the grand review at Washington in June, 1865. He was a faithful, valiant and valuable soldier. He was married Oct. 16,1867, to Eslie Woodle, daughter of A. H. Woodle of Sylvester, and lived on rented land until 1873, when he bought his present home. They have had four children—an infant, born and died in 1868, Fred, born Aug. 2, 1869; Frank, born Dec. 2, 1870, now deceased; and Chauncy, born Sept. 30, 1878. Mr. Coldren is a trusted and valued

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citizen, and is now (1884) on the town board of supervisors.
    Mrs. Sovina Vanderbilt, widow of John N. H. Vanderbilt, lives on section 7, town of Spring Grove. Mrs. Vanderbilt, is a daughter of the late Evan Young, of the town of Jefferson. She lives on the property of her late husband consisting originally of 200 acres, a part of the original purchase of Daniel Vanderbilt, made in 1845.   They were married July 24, 1851, and lived two years after marriage at the home of Mrs.Vanderbilt's father; then lived in Spring Grove.   Mr. Vanderbilt enlisted in the army Feb. 26, 1862, and died Dec. 4,1864, in Andersonville prison. He was born July 30, 1828. Mrs. Vanderbilt was born Feb. 21, 1833.   The homestead now contains seventy-five acres. There children are—Daniel W., born in November 1852, now living in California; Eorie M., born in November, 1854, and lives in Cass Co., Md.; Nina, now the wife of William A. Reed, of Chippewa Co., Minn, born in December, 1856; William S, at home, born May, 1859; Ettie M., born in February, 1862, now the wife of F. E. Cain, of Marathan Co., Wis., and Edith B., living with her mother, born July, 1864. Daniel Vanderbilt, father of John N. H., died May 17, 1878; the mother, Annie V., died in March, 1854.
     Samuel Brant, son of John A. Brant, lives on and owns a farm on section 34, town of Spring Grove. He was born in Wabash Co., Ind., July 5, 1845. His father moved to this town in September of that same year. He was reared a farmer and lived at home until he enlisted in the army in company E, 38th regiment, Wisconsin Volunteers, in August, 1864. He served until his discharge, June 2, 1865. After his return, he lived with and worked for his father until Oct. 2, 1869, when he was married to Mrs. Rachel Ostrander, widow of Thomas L. Ostrander, and daughter of the old pioneer, Archibald Davis. She had one child by her former marriage—Nellie R., born in 1861, who is now the wife of Henry Arnsmeir. Her first husband was a member of battery D, 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery, and died at New Orleans in September, 1863. Mr. and Mrs. Brant have had five children—Albert, born Aug. 6, 1870, and died March 3, 1876; Virginia, born June 27, 1873; Katie, born Feb. 20, 1876; Glorania, born Dec. 24, 1878, and Scott, born April 7, 1880.
    Isaac Brobst, Sr., was born April 2, 1808, in Berks Co., Penn. When a child, his father, John Brobst, moved to Union county, and there Isaac grew to manhood. His father died in 1846. His mother's death occurred in 1827. Of eleven children, only Isaac and a brother are now living. The brother lives near Akron, Ohio. The subject of this sketch, Isaac Brobst, was married Nov. 9, 1828, to Sarah Beaver, born in Union Co., Penn. Eleven children have been born to them—Daniel, born in 1829; Mary Ann, born 1831, deceased wife of A. Stayer; Amelia, born 1834, deceased wife of Jacob Hostetler; Elizabeth, born 1836, wife of Elijah Clark, Jo Daviess Co., Ill.; Martin, born 1838, resides at Stephenson Co., Ill.; Peter, born 1841 and died in 1859; Fanny, born 1843, and died 1860; John, born l846, and died 1846; Harriet, born 1846, and died 1860; Isaac, Jr., born 1850, and William, born 1853. Isaac Brobst, Sr., reached the town of Rock Grove, Ill., June 20, 1845, and settled in Spring Grove, Nov. 4, 1846, on the land he still owns and resides upon on section 33. Mr. Brobst was one of the earliest and one of the best of the settlers of this town.
    Daniel Brobst is one of the leading enterprising men of Spring Grove. He lives on section 21, where he owns a model farm and fine buildings. This farm he has occupied since 1859. He also owns the "Barker place," consisting of 240 acres on section 25. This he bought in 1881. Mr. Brobst was born in Union Co., Penn., July 27, 1828, and is a son of Isaac Brobst, Sr.  He came west with his father's family in 1845, reaching Rock Grove, Stephenson Co., Ill., June 20; making the whole trip

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in emigrant wagons. There were seven children in the family. Daniel Brobst and Frederika Wagner were united in marriage Nov. 6, 1856. Mrs. Brobst is a daughter of Peter Wagner, of Rock Grove, Stephenson Co., Ill. They commenced life where they now live. They have had born to them eight children—Frank, born Nov. 11, 1857, and died Aug. 8, 1877; Ida, born May 3, 1859; Adilia, born Jan. 10, 1861, and died Nov. 4, 1877; Alvin, born Jan. 19, 1863; Kate, born Oct. 5, 1864; Scott, born July 5, 1867; Peter, born Sept. 7, 1870, and Roe, born Sept. 29, 1879. Mr. Brobst is a prominent citizen of his town, having served as assessor and treasurer. Mr. Brobst met with a sad misfortune in 1870. While out on a chicken hunt, in taking a gun from the wagon with the muzzle toward him, it was accidently discharged and the charge struck him near the wrist joint of his right arm. The wound made amputation of the arm between the elbow and the wrist necessary.
    Isaac Brobst, Jr., was born in this town in 1850. He is a good specimen of the younger class of the citizens who are to be trusted with the fortunes of the town in the future. Mr. Brobst has already held several positions of trust and always creditably. He is now serving his third term as member of the side board of supervisors, and has served one term as town treasurer.  He was married Oct. 22, 1871, to Sarah A. Woodling, a daughter of Charles Woodling, an early settler of this town.  She was born Aug. 3, 1852.  After marriage they settled on a farm which he bought of Daniel Westenhover. They resided here until 1876, when he sold and removed to his present home on section 15. He has a small creamery for his own use, fitted to be run by "dog power." Mr. and Mrs. Brobst have no children of their own, but have one adopted daughter, Sarah Ann, a child of Mrs. Brobst' brother, Oliver L. Woodling. Mrs. Woodling died June 16, 1877, which was one month after the birth of the daughter, who was then adopted by Mr. and Mrs. Brobst.
    Isaac W. Young was born in Knox Co., Ohio, Sept. 14, 1840. His father, Evin G. Young, brought his family to Green county in the autumn of 1846, and settled in the town of Jefferson, about two miles south of the village of Juda. There was a family of fourteen children, five sons and nine daughters—William, Samuel, Isaac W., Zenas and Joseph L. were born in Knox Co., Ohio. William, born Feb. 27, 1835; Samuel, Aug. 19, 1838; Zenas, Feb. 2, 1845; and Joseph L., April 18, 1846. William and Zenas are now deceased. Nancy married Joseph Melick, Feb. 23, 1842; Elizabeth married Andrew Riley, Jan. 4, 1847; Savonia, married John Vanderbilt, July 24, 1851, now a widow, he having died a prisoner in Andersonville during the Rebellion; Martha, A., married William Riley, Feb. 16, 1862; Mary J., married Clarence Bryan, March 12, 1865; Alice J., married Henry G. Townsend, May 18, 1866; Catharine, Rowena, Levina A., and Martha A., are now deceased.  Joseph L. enlisted in 1863, in company G., 1st Wisconsin Volunteer Cavalry, serving until the end of the war. He subsequently married Eunice Straw, a daughter of Malachi Straw, Nov. 29, 1869, and is now living near Greenwood, Cass Co., Neb.  Isaac W., the subject of the sketch, lives in this town on section 15, which was a part of the Charles Woodling place.  His father, Evin Young, died at Juda, in December, 1880. His mother's death occurred less than one month later. He enlisted Oct. 23, 1861, in company B, l8th Wisconsin Volunteers. He was transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps in 1864. After his discharge from the army he was married to Eliza Woodling, daughter of Charles Woodling, May 31, 1868. The year following he worked his father's farm in Jefferson, and then moved to his present location. They have four children— Willie W., born March 31, 1869; Orletta J.,

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born March 28, 1871; Anna M., born Aug. 22, 1872; and Clyde E., born March 28,1878.
    Samuel Young married Miss M. T. Henderson, a daughter of William Henderson, Jan. 3, 1860, and enlisted Aug. 14, 1861, in company K, 22d regiment, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, and served until the close of the war, then went into the railroad service at Monroe, Wis. After the lapse of five and a half years, he was appointed station agent for the Chicago & St. Paul Railroad Company, at Juda. His father, Evin G. Young, died at Juda, Dec. 12, 1880, at the age of eighty-one years. His mother, Barbara A., died Jan. 6,1881, at the age of seventy-five years. Subsequently he bought the old farm in the town Jefferson and is the present owner, but still continues in the service of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad Company at Juda, as station agent. They have four children—Grace E., born June 18, 1862; Esther A., born June 3, 1866; William S., born June 2, 1870; and Frederick F., born May 21, 1878.
    Reuben Babcock lives on section 25, where he has a comfortable home, and a farm of eighty acres. He was born in Cortland Co., N. Y., Oct. 4, 1802, and was brought up on a farm. He was married Dec. 2, 1824, to Louisa Palmer, who was born Nov. 29, 1807. Sixty years of married life finds them in quite vigorous health, able to do much work, and superintend the farm. Mrs. Babcock has a brother living in Oregon, Hiram Palmer. Mr. Babcock has a married sister living in Ripley Co., Ind., (Nancy, wife of Henry Rysinger).  Mr. and Mrs. Babcock left New York with their family, and settled in Ripley Co., Ind. At that time they had five children—Lemuel, now living in Minnesota; Joseph, now a resident of Jefferson Co., Iowa; Elvira, now the wife of Jacob Green; Lavina, wife of G. Putnam, of Osage, Iowa, and George, now living in this county. Four children were born in Indiana—Harriet, deceased; Samuel, who lives in Oberlin, Kansas, and was a member of company I, 46th Wisconsin Volunteers; Hiram, deceased; and Nancy, who was married to Rev. H. W. Decker, a Seventh-day Adventist preacher. Mr. Babcock has been a farmer all his life. He came to this State in 1847. Since coming to Wisconsin, two more children have been born to them—Mattie, who was married to William Kerr, of Monroe; and Eunice, the youngest, died when two years old.
    DeWitt C. Allen, son of E. R. Allen, was born near Terre Haute, Ind., Dec. 14, 1843.  When he was quite young his father settled in this town.  The latter has been a prominent citizen, many years a justice, has also served as sheriff and chairman of the county board of supervisors, and resides on section 26.  DeWitt C. is the eldest of a family of eight children of whom, beside himself, six are now living - Percy Ann, wife of G. W. Morton, of Canton, Dak.; Alice M., wife of R. A. Slocum; Theodore F., Amy Jane, wife of John Stahlnecker; Abraham L. and Charles H. DeWitt C. enlisted in company D, 1st Wisconsin Cavalry in September, 1863, and served faithfully to the end of the war, always able and willing for duty.  He has since the war been a resident of this town, and Sept. 21, 1873, was married to Catharine, a daughter of William Kline, and granddaughter of the old pioneer, Isaac Kline.  They have three children - William E. R., born Dec. 1, 1875; Eliza Ann, born Oct. 8, 1878; and Nora May, born Jan. 20, 1880.  Mr. Allen now (1884) lives on section 36, town of Spring Grove.
    Theodore J. Derrick, son of Franklin H. Derrick, and grandson of the old pioneer, was born in the town of Spring Grove, Feb 25, 1848. Mr. Derrick is one of the enterprising men among the younger class native to this county. Excepting an occasional absence of a few months, he has always been in this town at the home of his father, on a part of the original purchase of 1,200 acres made by his grandfather in 1836. He now operates the farm of his father on section 3, in company with his brother Levi, who was born July 25, 1855, and is not married. Theodore was married to Mrs. Ellen Purdy, June 5, 1873. Mrs. Derrick is a

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daughter of Henry Jones, of Brodhead, They have one child by this marriage—Jessie May, born May 4, 1874.
    Capt. Henderson Farmer was born in Pulaski Co., Ind., Aug. 8, 1842. His father, Andrew Farmer, in 1846 brought the family west and settled in Laone, Winnebago Co., Ill., where he bought 160 acres of government land, and lived there three years, then sold out and came to this town, locating on section 26, and there lived until 1854, and then bought and removed to forty acres on section 22. That land is now occupied by his son and widow. Andrew Farmer was born in Franklin Co., Va., Dec. 15, 1807. His wife, Mary (Armstrong) Farmer, was born Nov. 26, 1808, in Franklin Co., Va. They were married July 17, 1830, and have had six children—Edna, born in 1831, who was married to John Martin and after his death to Frederick Page, now living in Washington Territory; Elizabeth, born in 1834, wife of William Hooker, now living in Shelby Co., Iowa; Sarah Jane, born in 1835, wife of Jefferson Palmer of Monroe; James T., born in September, 1837, and died in November, 1846; Franklin G., born in October, 1839, enlisted in company G, 42d Illinois Volunteers, and died at Keokuk hospital in August, 1862; and Henderson, born in 1842. Soon after marriage the parents moved to Crawford Co., Ohio, where they lived seven years, and in 1838 moved to Pulaski Co., Ind., and in 1846, to Winnebago Co., Ill. Andrew Farmer died Oct. 31, 1881. Capt. Henderson Farmer, the subject of this sketch, enlisted Feb. 14, 1862, in company B, 18th Wisconsin Volunteers. He was in the battle front at Pittsburg Landing, in which the regiment was badly used, suffering from killed, wounded and prisoners taken, a fearful loss. Mr. Farmer was 2d sergeant when the company went to the front, a year later was orderly sergeant and returned as captain of the company, a sure and substantial testimonial of his worth and services as a soldier. He was married to his present wife. Nancy E. Norman, of Jefferson Co., Ill., May 25, 1879. His aged mother resides with him in the home where his father died.
    Peter L. Dedrick lives on the homestead purchased by his father, Nicholas Dedrick, in 1849. Nicholas Dedrick came from Ashford, Cattaraugus Co., N. Y., with his wife and four children—Nicholas, Jr., John, Daniel and Peter L. An older son, George, preceded his parents in coming here. He came to this town in 1842. He died in 1850, leaving a wife and two children. His widow afterwards married Nicholas Dedrick, Jr., and they now live in Eau Claire Co., Wis. A married daughter, Nancy, and her husband, Hiram Frank, came to this county in 1848. Mrs. Frank died in Pepin county in 1881. Mr. Frank now lives in Spring Grove. The oldest son, James H., came here in 1850. He now lives in Taylor Co., Wis. John lives in Butler Co., Neb., and Daniel in Spring Grove. Nicholas Dedrick, Sr., died Feb. 10, 1865, aged seventy years. His wife, Nancy Dedrick, died May 5, 1881, aged seventy-eight years. Peter L. Dedrick was married Sept. 30, 1869, to Sarah L. Eldred, daughter of Stephen and Roxanna Eldred, who live in the town of Albany, in this county. Four children have been born to them—Leonard M., born Sept. 3, 1871; Leona L., born Dec. 12, 1873; Elmer P., born Aug. 23, 1877, and Frank H., born Sept., 9, 1882. Mr. Dedrick is one of the enterprising and public spirited citizens of Spring Grove, always ready to give a hearty support to any enterprise for the public good. He was born in the State of New York.
    Clark Williams, son of Seth C. Williams was born June 1, 1845, at Freeport, Ill. His father was born in Cattaraugus Co., N. Y., Jan. 26, 1806. His mother, Tharza (Lyon) Williams was born June 23, 1804. They were married Feb. 7,1827. They came west and settled in Freeport, Ill., in 1840, farming there until 1849. They removed to this town and settled on section 29, buying 100 acres of land. They had born to them eight children—John N., living in Douglas Co., Neb.; Lysanus W., lives in Berkley, Cal., Marilla,

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died in 1851; Maypelyt M., wife of David Bradley, of Rock Grove, Ill.; Chester, enlisted in Co., B, 18th Wisconsin Volunteers, and died in the service; Clark, who lives on the homestead; and Lusetta H., wife of Peter Mellis, Douglas Co., Neb.  Milton died in 1851.
    Seth C. Williams died July 20, 1883. Tharza, his wife, died Oct. 2, 1879. Clark Williams lived with his parents until his death, with the exception of the time he was in the army. He enlisted Oct. 2, 1863, in company D, 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery. The batteries was ordered to Louisiana in February, 1864, and he served in that department until the close of the war. He was mustered out at Alexandria, Va., Aug. 18, 1865. Returning to his home, he was married Nov. 14, 1867, to Abbie Blaisdell, daughter of John Blaisdell, of Wayne, Lafayette Co., Wis. Six children have been born to them—John W., born September, 1869, and died October, 1870; Laura M., born Nov. 1, 1870; Elmer J., born January, 1873; George W., born November, 1874; Artie, born February, 1878; and Julia L., born August, 1880. Mr. Williams is a member of W. W. Patton, G. A. R., post No. 90.
    Thomas Shaff owns and occupies 120 acres of land on the northeast quarter of section 10, town of Spring Grove, also ninety-six acres on section 11. His residence stands on the line between the two sections, and he has a fine well improved farm. Mr. Shaff was born in Wayne county, town of Williamson, N. Y., March 13, 1818. When he was seven years old his parents moved to Oswego Co., N. Y., where Thomas lived until he came to this county in 1850. Mr. Shaff was married in January, 1842, to Eveline Lake. She died in August. 1846, leaving two children— William H., now living in Turner Co., Dak., and Lydia Ann, now the wife of Larson Olds, and living in Avon, Rock Co., Wis. Mr. Shaff was again married, Aug. 15, 1847, to Mrs. Mary J. Sidman, a native of Syracuse, N.Y.  By this marriage two children have been born—Margaret A., born Aug. 30, 1850. wife of Leonard Beeman, of Turner Co., Dak., and Albertus L., born in January, 1859, who lives with his parents. Mr. Shaff is among the highly esteemed citizens of the town of Spring Grove.
    Josiah Straw was born in Wyandotte Co., Ohio, Oct. 15, 1828. He was brought up on a farm. In 1849 he came with his father, Israel Straw, and the family to Wisconsin. Of the five children Josiah was the eldest. The father lived in Rock Co., Wis., one year, and then settled in Spring Grove, on section 36. This was in 1850, and the children besides the subject of this sketch, were—Eliza, now wife of Jehu Thorp, of Decatur Co., Kansas; Daniel, now a resident of Brodhead; Jessie, who lives in Spring Grove; Elmira, who was the wife of James Hooker, and died Jan. 10, 1861. Josephus Straw, a brother, came three years later, with a family, remained a few years, and removed to Chickasaw Co., Iowa. The father, Israel Straw, died on the homestead, Feb. 15, 1879. His wife died before him, Jan. 22, 1869. Josiah Straw lives on, and owns the old place. He was unmarried until Feb. 16, 1884, when he abandoned a life of single blessedness, and was married to Mrs. Sarah Clawson, widow of Isaac Clawson. Her former husband died July 17,1882, leaving no children. The father of Mrs. Straw, David Springsted, died when she was quite young. Her mother lives with her sister Dolly, (Mrs. John Gardiner, of Decatur). The other sisters are—Bashie, wife of Charles Lucas, of Brodhead; Esther, wife of H. T. Johns, and Georgie, wife of S. C. Stiles, of Iroquois Co., Ill. The place owned by Mr. Straw was known to old settlers as the "William Farmer's" farm. Previous to his marriage Mr. Straw lived most of the time with his tenants. A nephew, son of his sister, Elmira, and James Hooker, was adopted by him, with whom Mr. Straw has lived a share of the time.
    Powel Karney resides upon section 23, where he owns a farm of 186 acres and thirty acres of timber, with first-class improvements.  Mr. Karney's permanent settlement here dates from 1852, but he has been a resident of the State of

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Wisconsin since 1844, coming in that year from Ohio to Milwaukee. He was born in Massachusetts and when very young removed with his parents to Ohio. In his youth he learned the trade of joiner, which occupation he followed for three years after coming to Milwaukee. In 1847 he went to Janesville, working there and in Johnstown, Geneva, Bradford and other points. In 1848 he bought eighty acres of unimproved land and several village lots in Avon, Rock county. In the fall of that year he came to Green county, and spent the winter in teaching school in district No. 1, of Spring Grove, in what was then called the Kline neighborhood. Three schools were then in progress in town. In the spring of 1849 he went to Walworth county and worked at his trade one year, employed most of the time upon a grist mill, near Allen's Grove. The next year he worked in Avon, and later, returned to this town. The following winter he taught school in the Clemans neighborhood. In the spring of 1851 he secured work at Wiota and afterwards at Darlington. The next winter he again taught the Clemans school.  During the summer following he built a house for P. Atwood, and the same season purchased forty acres of land, a part of his present farm. He was married Nov. 11, 1852, to Abigail L. Martin, daughter of Isaac Martin, and eight children have been born to them—Marion L., born in November, 1853; Isaac M., born in May, 1856; Eva L., born in December, 1858; Willard M., born in May, 1863; Emma E., born in February, 1867; Melzar E., born in August, 1869; Jennie O., born in April, 1873; and Elmer J., born in April, 1876. The last named died Sept. 1, 1881, in Dakota, while there on a visit. Mr. Karney has always been prominent in the public affairs of this town, and has held the offices of supervisor, town clerk, assessor and treasurer.
    Pervine Atwood is the largest land owner in the town of Spring Grove. He was born in the State of Indiana, Sept. 27, 1822. His father, Arillious Atwood, removed his family in 1828 to Edgar Co., Ill., settling in the squatter village of Paris, now the county seat of that county. Again, in 1843, he removed to White Co., Ill., where he died in 1849. His wife died later in Clay Co., Kansas. One son, brother of P. Atwood, now lives in Walla Walla, Washington Territory. The subject of this sketch in the spring of 1845 went to Oregon and remained until the spring of 1847. He then went to California and lived there until the fall of 1850; then he returned east, and settled in Spring Grove, buying 240 acres of land, 160 of it on section 14, where he improved a farm. In July, 1852, Mr. Atwood was married to Martha Jane Oneall, daughter of Robert Oneall. To them were born twelve children, of whom four daughters and three sons are now living—James P., Robert E., Freddie O., Mary Viola, Emma Rhoda, Sarah Rebecca and Jessie Belle. Mrs. Atwood died Nov. 22, 1882, aged fifty years. Mr. Atwood, during his first twelve years of residence here, bought at different times of different persons adjoining lands, until at one time he owned 1,300 acres. He has at this time (1884) a farm of 800 acres, all under fence. From 1866 to 1876 he rented his lands and lived in Brodhead. He is one of the public spirited citizens of the town, and second to no one in pushing enterprises advantageous to the public good.
    Isaac E. Martin was born in the town of Green, Ashland Co., Ohio, Sept. 2, 1836. When he was fifteen years old his parents came to the town of Spring Grove, this county.   His father was Hugh Martin, and he settled on section 26. After the death of his father Isaac E. lived at the home with his mother until his marriage with Delia Ann Woodling, a daughter of the early settler, John H. Woodling, Sept. 5, 1861. For some years following this marriage the young couple lived on rented lands, and until about one year before the close of the war, when Mr. Martin enlisted in company I, 46th Wisconsin Volunteers, and served until the regiment was mustered out.  The following

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winter he removed to a place of his own on section 36. To Mr. and Mrs. Martin were born three children—Wealtha F., born Aug 5, 1862; Adelia M., born Feb. 25, 1865; Cyrus E., born Dec. 1, 1867, and died Nov. 18, 1870.   The father, Isaac E. Martin, died Aug. 19, 1870. Mrs. Martin was again married, this time to George H. Slocum, June 18, 1874. Mr. Slocum had been a resident from an early age of Winnebago Co., Ill., his father being a pioneer of that county. His residence in this county dates from the time of his marriage. Three children have been born to them, of whom two are living—Emery E , born April 8, 1875; Irvin R., born Sept. 12, 1876, and died Feb. 27, 1883; Martie M., born Oct. 31, 1879.  The residence of Mr. and Mrs. Slocum is on the State line, on section 36.
    Lewis Hooker was born in Knox Co., Ohio, April 11, 1831. When he was a lad his father removed to Wyandotte county, of the same State, where he died in 1844. When Lewis was twenty years old, in 1851, with his mother and two younger brothers, George and James, he came to Spring Grove.  Two sisters and a brother had come two years earlier. The sisters were: Mary, wife of John Farmer, and Elizabeth, wife of Malachi StrawMary died in 1864. Elizabeth and her husband live in Page Co., Iowa.  William, who came with the two sisters, settled on section 36, and afterwards went to Brodhead, and now lives in Shelby Co., Iowa.  George lives in Davison Co., Dak., and James lives in Durand, Ill. The mother bought the farm afterwards owned by John D. Horton, and now owned by Uriah Hartman. She died in this town.   Lewis Hooker, the subject of this sketch, was married Dec. 18, 1858, to Sarah E. Horton. Catharine Horton, a sister of Mrs. Hooker, has her home with them. Mr. and Mrs. Hooker lived on the farm of John D. Horton for five years after their marriage, and later on a part of the Charles Woodling place, working one-half of the farm for three years.  He had bought 100 acres on section 15, and after building a house upon the purchase, moved into the same, which has since been his residence, the date of removal being Dec. 20, 1866.  They have had four children, all of whom have been spared to them, and are at this time (1884) living at home —Josephine, born Sept. 24, 1859; Joel A., born Feb. 23, 1861; Dexter E, born Nov. 6, 1866; Calista S., born June 9, 1876. Mr. Hooker has a good farm and comfortable buildings.
    J. J. Newman is one of the largest farmers in Green county.  He lives upon section 6, town of Spring Grove, where he owns 460 acres.   He also owns seventy acres on section 7, 100 acres on section 12, and fifty-eight acres on section 1, in the town of Jefferson, also fractional additions to the northeast quarter of said section, south of the railroad, making altogether a farm of nearly 800 acres of contiguous lands, well adapted to general farming. His residence and farm buildings are substantial and commodious, and were erected at a cost of about $8,000. His barn is 70x100 feet, with twenty-four foot posts, making sufficient room for sheltering 120 head of cattle and 100 hogs, and above has storage for from 7,000 to 8,000 bushels of grain, and 800 tons of hay. Mr. Newman was born in Fayette Co., Penn., Nov. 2, 1827. In 1848 his father, William Newman, came with his family to Lancaster, Grant Co., Wis. The following year he (William Newman) removed to the "Rittenhouse farm," in the town of Jefferson, Green county, and lived there two years, then moved upon the "Wash. Alexander farm," in Spring Grove, until he could build a house upon land which he had purchased on section 6, where he settled in 1852.  Mr. Newman was first married in Pennsylvania, and his wife died there in 1846. A short time before coming west, he was again married to Vashti Debolt, widow of Andrew Debolt. He had in his family at this time, seven children and a stepdaughter—Anna E. Debolt. Ephraim, the third son and fourth child, died at Nicholasville, Ky.,

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while in the service during the late war. He was a lieutenant in company K, of the 22d Wisconsin regiment; Hannah was married to John Batty, and died Sept. 20, 1873; Samuel died at Mount Pleasant, March 17, 1876; Elizabeth is married to Jacob Roderick; Nancy lives in Decatur; William lives in Jefferson, and Anna Debolt is the wife of O. B. Post. After coming to Wisconsin, Mr. and Mrs. Newman had four children born—Isaac J., born in 1849, and died at the age of twenty-two months; Louisa, born in 1851, is now the wife of Scott Dorsy, of Nebraska; Josephine, born in 1853, also lives in Nebraska, and is the wife of Clinton Condon; Alice, born in 1856, is the wife of Daniel Dunwiddie. William Newman died in April, 1863, and his wife died Nov. 7, 1874. Jefferson J. Newman was married Jan. 27, 1853, to Lydia, daughter of Jehu Chadwick, of Jefferson. They first settled in Jefferson, where he bought 200 acres of land on sections 14 and 23, upon which they lived eleven years, then removed to their present residence. They have had eleven children born to them—James M., born in January, 1854; Mary, born in October, 1855; Gilbert, born in September, 1857; Ira, born in May, 1860; William, born in August, 1862; John, born in September, 1864, and died Oct. 17, 1865; Elizabeth, born in March, 1867; Frank, born in September, 1869; Parker, born in March, 1872; Thornton, born in January, 1876, and Ross, born in June, 1878. The last named died Feb. 9, 1879. All of the children living, except James M., who is at Cheyenne, Wy. Ter., are residing with their parents.
    Austin C. Chapel lives on section 22. He settled here in 1854. He was born in Richland Co., Ohio, Sept, 15, 1830, and came to this town in October, 1853. One year later his brother, James H. Chapel, and his mother, came. Four brothers and two sisters also came at the same time with James H.  Their names are—Ebenezer R., who died in Ohio, Oct 3, 1873; Ransom A., who died from a wound received at the battle of Shiloh, Sept. 30, 1862; Thomas R., died July 28, 1856; Reuben H , residing in Mount Auburn, Iowa. He served from Sept. 7, 1861, to Dec. 26, 1865, in the 13th Wisconsin Volunteers; Harriet, wife J. R. Coulter, came in 1852; Lucelia R., wife of Jacob Hass; Agatha, wife of Robert Pomeroy, living in Dixon Co., Neb. One sister came with her husband, John A. Emminger, in 1855. She died December 13, of the same year. Another sister, Martha, wife of Simon P. Armstong, lives in Dickinson Co., Kansas.  The father of this family, John Chapel, died in Ohio, Aug. 23, 1844. The mother, Martha Chapel, lives with her son, Austin C. She was born June 1, 1800, and is vigorous, healthy, of strong mind and apparently unclouded intellect. She reads without glasses, and walks as elastic as a maiden, and enjoys life with the rest of them. She was born at Montpelier, Vt. and came west to Ohio with her parents, when eighteen years of age. Austin C. Chapel, after coming in the fall of 1853,worked at farm work and wood chopping and any employment which offered in a new country. He commenced making a farm which he now resides upon late in 1854. He enlisted Sept. 7,1861, in the 13th Wisconsin Volunteers and served three years and was discharged Nov. 19, 1864. After his discharge he came to Spring Grove, and June 22, 1867, was wedded to Madeline King; daughter of John and Rhoda King, of White Co., Ill. Mrs. Chapel was born March 25,1849. They have had seven children—Delia, born Dec. 28, 1867, died Nov. 3, 1881; Daisy, born Sept. 23, 1860; Dora, born Nov. 24, 1871; Cyrus, born May 11, 1873, died Sept. 3, 1873; Clark, born Feb. 3, 1875, died May 14, 1876; Eunice, born March 26, 1877; Azella, born June 21, 1880. The married life of Mr. and Mrs. Chapel has been spent on his present farm.
     George W. Zimmerman was born in Columbia, Penn., Feb. 25, 1828.  He was reared a farmer, but after becoming of age learned the blacksmith's trade, serving two and one half years apprenticeship.  He followed that trade until 1863 or ten years after he commenced.

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He first came west in 1853, locating in Stephenson Co., Ill., where he worked at his trade a year and a half.  In 1855 he came to the town of Spring Grove and bought 100 acres of land on section 33, where he built a house and shop. This property he sold in 1862. The following winter he visited his old home in the east, returning in the spring of 1863, and the autumn of that year moved to his present residence on section 28. This farm he had purchased the year previous (1862).  He has in the farm 155 acres on section 28, twenty acres on section 27, and sixty acres on section 20. He was married to Elizabeth Keller, in Pennsylvania, March 13, 1850.  They have had eleven children born to them—William, born in January, 1852, and died in September, 1853; Isaac, born in August, 1853, who now lives in Oakley; Lloyd, born in February, 1856, and died in July, 1859; Sarah Ann, born in March, 1859, and died in July of the same year; Owen, born in May, 1860, who was married to Melinda Walter; Franklin, born in February, 1863; Clinton, born in August, 1865; Jacob, born in March, 1868; Ida, born in August, 1870, and died in March, 1877; Elmer, born in April, 1873, and Katie, born in April, 1879. Mr. Zimmerman is a son of Isaac and Elizabeth Zimmerman. When George W. Zimmerman returned from the east, father Keller and family returned with him.  There were eight children—Lucy (deceased), Sarah, Franklin, Jacob, Phebe, Caroline, Rebecca and Fanny. Frank was killed in the army; Fanny was married to Charles Mitchell; Caroline was married to J. P. Kildow; Rebecca was married to Isaac Clemans; Phebe was married to A. Spaulding, and Sarah was married to John Reahezen. Mr. Keller died in 1878.
    Mrs. Rebecca Klumb, wife of Jacob Klumb, lives on the northwest quarter of section 3, town of Spring Grove.   She was born in Oswego Co., N. Y., in 1829, and is a daughter of Thomas Shaff. Her father moved with his family to Milwaukee in 1835. He was accidentally drowned the next year.   Her mother in 1838 was married to John Douglass.   They came to this county in 1853, settling in Decatur. Mr. Douglass now lives in Brodhead; his wife died in 1880.   The subject of this sketch was married, March 31, 1846, to Jacob Klumb, and they came to Spring Grove moving on to the place now occupied by Mrs. Klumb. The following winter they moved on to a farm in Decatur, since occupied by Isaac Newman, which Mr. Klumb bought and three years later sold to Mr. Newman, then buying the place where his wife now lives, from Allen Woodle, consisting of 146 acres. Six children were born to them. all of whom are living—Almira, born in 1847, wife of Aug. Short; Thomas C., born in 1849; Jacob J. A., born in 1850; Alfred A., born in 1853; Elizabeth, born in 1857,and Ellen, born in 1858. Thomas C. was married to Ellen Hileman, daughter of Elijah Hileman, formerly of Decatur. They live in Hamilton Co., Neb., and have three children—Claude, Carl and Earl. Jacob J. married Ida Boslaw and is now in Hamilton Co., Neb. They have four sons— Franklin R., Harry, Guy and Jesse. Alfred married Henrietta Sawyer, daughter of John B. Sawyer, of Brodhead. They live in Aurora, county seat of Hamilton Co., Neb. Ellen also lives in that county, and is the wife of W. C. Bailey. They have one child—Adith Blanche, born July 8, 1882. Jacob Klumb went to California in May,1858. After reaching there he kept up correspondence with regularity until 1872.  He was during these years striving to win a fortune and when prospects were bright would fix a probable time for a return to his family, but fortune the "fleeting Goddess" while often in sight was never to be embraced.  The latter year (1872) he wrote his wife that he was about to change his location, and was uncertain where he should go, and requested her not to write until she heard from him. Years rolled by, and no tidings were received. To be satisfied as to whether he was living or dead, Mrs. Klumb's son-in-law, R. J. Holcomb, in 1883 visited California and found Mr. Klumb

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still in pursuit of the "fickle goddess." Mrs. Klumb is again in communication with her husband and hopes for his eventual return. Randolph J. Holcomb is a Now England man by birth, having been born in Green Co., Conn., in 1850. His father was Alfred Holcomb. At the age of nine years, Randolph was left motherless. His mother died in Hartford, Conn. His father  afterwards came to Brodhead, and returning east, died in 1861, at Rockville, Conn. Another son lives in this State at Beloit. Randolph J. was married to Elizabeth Klumb, June 18, 1874. They have three children—Clara L., born June 3, 1877; Lura M., born Sept. 16, 1879, and Clayton, born June 23, 1881. Mr. and Mrs. Holcomb live on the old homestead with the mother of Mrs. Holcomb, on section 3.
    Samuel L. Boyles was born in Kalamazoo Co. Mich., Sept. 27, 1834. His father, Samuel Boyles, was a farmer and to this avocation Samuel L., was reared, with the advantages of a common school education.  His father and mother, Rebecca Boyles, are living in Richland, Kalamazoo Co., Mich., where they have resided since 1829. They were formerly from Chester Co., Penn.   Samuel Boyles was called out twice in the militia during the excitement in Michigan attending the Black Hawk War. The subject of this sketch, Samuel L. Boyles, came to this county a single man, in January, 1854. He was married Feb. 25, 1855, to Nancy J. Benjamin, a daughter of Ira Benjamin. She was born in Herkimer Co., N. Y., Oct. 30, 1837, and came to this State in 1842. There have been born to them six children—Samuel I., born in November, 1856; Lydia R., born in March, 1858, and died in infancy; Jennie J. born in March, 1859, wife of Franklin Brant; Duane D., born in July, 1862; Benjamin L., born in January, 1866, and Era A., born in March, 1873. Mr. Boyles was bereaved by the death of his wife, Aug. 15, 1881.  There married life was spent under a roof upon the same spot of ground where they commenced housekeeping four days after marriage, and where Mr. Boyles now lives on section 9. His farm contains 300 acres on sections 9 and 16. During the war when heavy taxes were levied, Mr. Boyles served two years as town treasurer.   He has also served two terms as assessor, and has always been identified with the best men of his town in promoting the public good.
    James H. Chapel was born in Richland Co., Ohio, Dec. 31, 1832, and was a son of John Chapel, a farmer. James H. was brought up on a farm, but at the age of eighteen years, apprenticed himself, for a term of three years, to the trade of wagon making, his wages consisting of his board and clothing. He served his time and then worked one year at the trade. In 1854 he came to this county, locating in the town of Spring Grove and working for P. Atwood for two years on a farm, meanwhile buying seventy acres of land known as the Kramer place. He was married Dec. 28, 1856, to Mary E. Martin, daughter of Isaac and Nancy Martin, who, with three daughters—Margaret, Lavina and Mary, and a married son, Isaac N., and his wife with three children, settled in Spring Grove in 1850. They came from the town of Greene, Ashland Co., Ohio. Mr. Martin bought 160 acres of land on section 23. Two married daughters were left in Ohio—Nancy, wife of John Menoe, now living in Avon, Rock Co., Wis., and Martha, wife of James M. Cobert, now living in Brodhead; and one son, Thomas, who lives in Hayesville, Ohio. Of the three unmarried daughters Margaret married John Q. Fitzgerald, and they live in Canton, Dak.; Lavina married Powel Karney, and they live on the old homestead of the father; Mary married James H. Chapel, of this town, as before stated. Mr. Martin was connected with the Presbyterian Church about forty years of his life, and was an elder for thirty years. The first Sunday after reaching this town he organized a Sabbath school, and from that time to the end of his life, was a superintendent of a Sabbath school in this town. He was man of many sterling quali-

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ties, of strict integrity and honor. He died Feb. 4, 1862. His wife died Nov. 28, 1864. In 1857, the year following his marriage, the subject of this sketch, James H. Chapel, commenced life on his own farm. After living there one year, with his wife and his brother, R. H. Chapel, he left for the west to seek a fortune. They started with a team and covered wagon, traveling west until late in August. They reached the Missouri river at Booneville, Mo., where they remained until the following spring, cutting and barking wood on a contract. April 4, 1859, one year to a day from the time of leaving his Wisconsin home, having exchanged his horses for oxen, they left the Missouri river, and " Westward Ho! bound for Pike's Peak," was the cry. With varied adventure they reached the present site of the city of Denver, during the last days of June. While there, a few days later, Mr. Chapel assisted in raising the first house of any kind ever built in that city. It was constructed of cottonwood logs. July 4, Mr. Chapel and his brother joined fortunes with seven others, and started prospecting for gold in the mountains. They made a claim about forty-five miles from Denver. The day they reached the mountains it snowed furiously, and the party suffered severely with the cold. Not many days afterward Mr. Chapel returned to Denver for provisions. He made these trips several times, and at one time upon his return loaded with fifty pounds of flour, and climbing the mountain path just wide enough for an Indian pony to walk, he met a large party of Arapahoes, who were returning from the war path with scalps of their enemies, the Utes, war paint and war trappings, which gave them a wicked appearance, and Mr. Chapel was in doubt as to whether they might not be yet one scalp short. But they dashed by, every brave giving the short “how.” Mrs. Chapel spent some weeks at the foot of the mountains grazing the oxen and one cow in company with another woman, the wife of one of the party, twenty from the camp at the working claim. The mountain fever getting hold of Mr. Chapel, he was cured of the "gold fever," and a longing for the refreshing shades and quiet dells of Wisconsin came over him, and then it was that "Homeward Ho," was the cry. A long, tedious journey was before them. In September they set their faces eastward, and Dec. 2, 1859, found them again in Spring Grove. Both Mr. and Mrs. Chapel found themselves not only broken in expense, but also in health, from exposure necessarily incident to the kind of life they had been leading. They were obliged to rent lands until 1863, when he bought land where he now lives on section 23. On that section, and on section 22, he now owns 213 acres of good land, all under improvement. They have had nine children—Alvarus, born Oct. 7, 1857, and died in infancy; Viella N., born Feb. 12, 1860, wife of Adam Bener; Hattie V., born Aug. 19, 1863, wife of Uriah H. Hartman ; J. Ralph, born Sept. 22, 1866; John A., born Nov. 25, 1868, and died July 15, 1876; Maud A., born Nov. 9, 1870: Martha E., born Oct. 6, 1875; Columbus C., born Oct. 14, 1877, and Jessie M., born June 21,1880. Mr. Chapel enlisted in company I, 46th Wisconsin Volunteers, and served until the regiment was mustered out of service. He was elected town treasurer in 1867, and held that office for eight years, during which time he made the town assessment three or four times. He is now the town assessor. He is a public spirited man, and a good citizen. He is a member of the G A. R. Post No. 90.
    James P. Atwood, one of the young men born in the town of Spring Grove, is a son of P. and M. J. Atwood, and was born Jan. 10, 1855. He was brought up on a farm, and lived with his father until his marriage with Susan A. Baxter, Oct. 24, 1874. His wife is a daughter of Thomas J. Baxter, and a granddaughter of the old pioneer, Daniel Baxter, who settled in this town in 1837. She was born June 17, 1856.  Two boys have been born to them—

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John P., born July 18, 1876, and Robert Lincoln, born April 12, 1878. Mr. Atwood owns and occupies eighty acres of land on section 14, also owns eighty-four acres of unimproved land in the town of Kensett, near Northwood, Worth Co., Iowa. He is one of the promising young men of the town.
    Saul Mattison was born in Genesee Co., N.Y., May 29, 1812, where he grew to manhood, learning the trade of blacksmith. In 1836 he was married to Nancy Gilbert. To them one son was born—Ransom, who is now living in Minnesota. He was captain in the late Civil War in a Minnesota regiment. Saul Mattison lost his wife in 1837, after a little over one year of married life. He was married April 29, 1841, to Charlotte Gray. By this union there were six children—Charles E., Oscar, (deceased) aged one year; Marion, wife of James Davis; Charlotte, who died at age of five years; Ida M., living at home; Florence, single. Mrs. Mattison was born in Chenango Co., N. Y., June 19, 1820. Mr. Mattison moved his family west and settled in this town in 1855. He was one of the first mechanics in the town in his line. He is now (1884) working at his trade at Oakley, where he has lived since 1859.
    August Short was born at Coblenz, on the Rhine, Prussia, in the year 1834. His father, Nicholas Short (the name has been Americanized) came to America with his family, landing at New York, July 6, 1852. He came directly to Milwaukee where he now lives. Of his eight children, four died the first summer with cholera in that city, and his wife died in 1858. The other children—Joseph, August, Elizabeth and Nicholas are living. The subject of this sketch left the family, the next day after reaching Milwaukee, and obtained employment at a brickyard, where he received $7 per month. He borrowed $10 and went to Bloomington, Ill., and worked upon a farm there until the next spring. He then returned to Milwaukee with his earnings, $55 dollars in gold, which he gave to his father and again went to work in a brickyard, for $16 per month. He afterward went to Henry Co., Ill., where he worked until the spring of 1854. He then went to work on the Racine & Beloit Railroad for a short time, after which he engaged to work on a farm with John Robinson, in whose employ he came to Spring Grove in 1855. Mr. Robinson moved into a house which stood on the site of Mr. Short's present residence. The property was then owned by Mr. Derrick. In 1856 Mr. Short rented a farm of Nelson Thompson and worked it one year. He continued to work rented lands until 1866, in which year he bought the Derrick farm, upon which he now lives. It comprises lots 2 and 7, and the west half of lots 1 and 8, fractional additions to the northeast quarter of section 4, 138 acres. He also owns forty acres on section 8, and ten acres on section 9, making altogether a valuable farm. He is an example of what may be accomplished by industry, honesty and perseverance. Mr. Short was married March 1, 1863, to Almira Klumb, daughter of an old settler, Jacob Klumb. They have one daughter—Rella, born Oct. 22, 1864.
    Melville Karney, son of Powel and Abigail Karney, was born in this town May 11, 1856. He was reared a farmer, and lived with his parents until his marriage, which occurred Dec. 7, 1882. His wife was Abbie Hamblett, daughter of Horace and Lana Hamblett. Her father enlisted in the 13th Wisconsin regiment in 1863, and died while on his way home on board a ship off New York harbor. Her mother subsequently married Gilbert Ross, and now lives in Brodhead. Melville Karney is a son of one of Spring Grove's best citizens, and, as such, promises to fill the expectations of his family and friends. He is at present living on a portion of his father's farm on section 23.
    Oliver W. Martin, son of W. N. and Elizabeth Martin, was born in the town of Spring Grove, Dec. 10, 1856. His parents came from Ashland Co., Ohio, and settled in this town in 1854. His father is among the respected citizens of the town. Oliver is one of a family of

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five children. The other four are—William A., who died Nov. 10, 1883; Flora B., Minnie M. and Nellie. Oliver W. lived with his parents until his marriage Oct. 31, 1882, with Ella Oneall daughter of William H. and Marcia Oneall. She was born Sept. 3, 1858. Their only child, Inez May, was born Aug. 18, 1883. Mr. Martin is one of the best among the younger class of men in the town. He has made the most of his opportunities, fitting himself for school teaching, and had taught eight terms, with credit to himself and satisfaction to the people. He is now serving his third term as town clerk.
    D. W. Austin is one of the large farmers of Spring Grove. He owns 475 acres of valuable land on sections 11 and 12. He keeps about 100 head of cattle; milking in the season about fifty cows; keeping also about 200 sheep, and other stock. He has shelter for all and storage for feed. Mr. Austin was born in Scotland, Albany Co., N. Y., July 16, 1821. When twenty-one years of age he came to Wisconsin, spending the first year in Racine county. His father, John Austin, came later and settled. With him his son made a home a large share of the time until his marriage with Jane E. Hugunin, which occurred at Johnstown Center, Rock county, March 2, 1847. He lived with his father until 1852, when he bought a farm at Johnstown Center, and lived on the same until 1856, when he sold his farm and came to Brodhead and engaged in the livery business, which he followed seven years; in the meantime buying at different times of different parties 440 acres of his present farm. Closing out his business in Brodhead, he has made his farm his residence since. Mr. Austin's mother died in 1854, and his father in 1872.   Thomas Austin, a brother, lives at Johnstown, Rock county, and owns 2,300 acres of land in that county. The subject of this sketch, D. W. Austin, was one of the first men in this part of the county to engage in breeding the Holstein family of cattle. He is a practical farmer. Mr. and Mrs. Austin have four children—Mary Ann, born in 1848, wife of Dr. E. H. Dudley, of Shell Rock, Iowa; Carson A., born in 1853; Cora H., born in 1861; and David E., born in 1863.
    Samuel Colby was born Jan. 13, 1805, in Ogden, Monroe Co., N.Y.  His father died in September, 1809, and his mother in 1818. Samuel is the last of a family of seven children, three sons and four daughters.  He settled in Oakland Co., Mich., near Pontiac; April 20, 1826.  He was married May 25, 1829, to Eliza Douglass, a native of Oneida Co., N. Y., who came to Oakland county when six years old. In March, 1841, Mr. and Mrs. Colby came to Rock Co., Wis., bought land in Plymouth, made a farm and lived there thirteen years, then, selling out, purchased land in this town (now owned by Cyrus I. Putnam), and lived on the same until 1866, then, after renting the place one year, sold out to Mr. Putnam. Two years later they spent one season in Fayette Co., Iowa, then living one year in Brodhead, went to Rock county, buying a farm in Spring Valley, and lived there until 1882, then came to this town to live with his son, David Colby. Mrs. Colby died in Brodhead Dec. 19, 1868. Mr. Colby has six children living—William, born Oct. 14, 1830, now living in Fayette Co., Iowa; George, born Oct. 17, 1832, a resident of Decatur Co., Kansas; James H., born April 20, 1834, living in West Union, Iowa; Melissa, born Oct. 19, 1846, wife of S. J. Babcock, of Decatur Co., Kansas; Samuel F., born Aug. 18, 1843.  The last was born in Rock county, the others in Michigan.  His son, David, with whom Mr. Colby lives, was born Nov. 28, 1835.  He owns a farm on section 35, where he lives. David served in company I, 46th Wisconsin Volunteers, until the regiment was mustered out. He was married Feb. 26, 1863, to Julia A. Martin, daughter of one of the early settlers, Joseph W. Martin.  Mr. Martin enlisted in the 13th regiment, Wisconsin Volunteers, and died at Chattanooga, Tenn.

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Mr. Martin's wife died at West Union, Iowa, in 1881. David Colby, after his return from the army, settled upon his present farm, and has since lived there. While in the service his wife lived with her mother.   Mr. and Mrs. Colby have had ten children—Adill, born Dec. 31, 1864, wife of Abraham Barker; Elva and Alva B., twins, born Jan. 22, 1867; the latter died April 8, 1880; Ada F., born Feb. 16, 1869; Samuel W., born May 30, 1871; Frank F., born Sept. 15, 1873, and died April 6, 1880; Walter G., born March 21, 1876; Bertha, born Aug. 14, 1877, and died April 8, 1880; Roy R., born March 23, 1880; Earl, born April 19, 1882.
    Orland B. Post owns and occupies a farm comprising lots number 5 and 6, fractional additions to the northwest quarter of section 4, and lots number 1 and 8, fractional additions to the northeast quarter of section 5. His residence is on lot 1. The land on section 5, was known in early days as the "Condon place," and the land on section 4 as the "Morris Derrick farm." Mr. Post bought the Derrick farm in 1867, and lived there until 1875, when he purchased the Condon place, adjoining, to which he removed. He was born in Chautauqua Co., N. Y., in 1836. He was reared a farmer, and at the age of twenty-one years, came west, reaching Jordan Prairie, in this county, April 1, 1857. He engaged in farming here three years, then, in 1860, went to Goodhue Co., Minn., and remained one year, teaching the first school in the town of Holden, during the winter. The school house was a miserable, half built log cabin, heated by an old cooking stove. The fuel was delivered at the school house door, sled length, to be prepared by the teacher, for the stove. He received the enormous compensation of $15 per month and "boarded round." Miss Debolt, to whom he was afterwards married, taught the same winter in Oak Hill district, in Decatur, in this county, receiving $10 per month and boarding round. Mr. Post contemplated remaining in Minnesota, and purchased eighty-seven acres of land on which he made some improvement. He changed his mind and returned to Spring Grove, where Oct. 10, 1861, he was married to Anna E. Debolt, daughter of Andrew Debolt and stepdaughter of William Newman. She is a native of Pennsylvania. They are the parents of five children—Arthur, born in November, 1862; Mary, born in November, 1864; Walter, born in March, 1868; Charlie, born in January, 1870, and Harry, born in June, 1875. Mr. and Mrs. Post resided in Sylvester several years before coming to Spring Grove. He is one of the valuable citizens of his town, and highly respected by his neighbors.
    Cyrus A. Horton is a son of John D. Horton, who came from Rensselaer Co., N.Y., in 1857, and settled on section 35, town of Spring Grove, Green Co., Wis., with his wife and three children—Sarah, wife of Lewis Hooker; Catharine, now living with Mr. and Mrs. Hooker, and Cyrus A.  John D. Horton died at the home he made in Spring Grove, March 10, 1882, in his seventy-sixth year. His wife, Curlista, died Dec. 12, 1881, in her sixty-fifth year. The old homestead of 100 acres was bought by Cyrus A. Horton, and by him sold to Thomas Hartman. The subject of this sketch was married to Mary Jane Woodling, daughter of John H. Woodling, of Spring Grove, June 25, 1863. They commenced married life on the farm of Mr. Horton's father, and lived there many years; but in 1874, Cyrus bought thirty acres in Laona, over the State line in Illinois, and subsequently added forty acres of land adjoining it, and in 1876 moved on to his farm, and has since been a citizen of Illinois. He has made his farm valuable by improvements in building, etc. Mr. and Mrs. Horton have had five children—Harriet A., born April 3, 1864, and died Oct. 17, 1865; Eunice M., born April 3, 1867; Kate Ann, born March 22, 1868; Cyrus Burton, born Feb. 13, 1873, and Nancy C., born Feb. 19, 1877. Mr. Horton was born in Ren-

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sselaer Co., N. Y., Aug. 5, 1839. Mrs. Horton was born in Vigo Co., Ind., June 5, 1844.
    John Kelley, proprietor of the Oakley woolen mill, was born in Milton, Northumberland Co., Penn., Nov. 25, 1823, and there grew to manhood, learning the trade of woolen manufacturer. His parents died in his native county; the father in 1838 and the mother in 1834. John was married Dec. 3, 1845, to Eliza Van Dyke, who was born in said county, March 27, 1826. They came west in the fall of 1857, (Mr. Kelley having spent a part of the previous year at Beloit and other points.) They lived a few months at Brodhead, then moved to Peoria, Ill., Mr. Kelley having engaged in buying wool and selling goods for an eastern establishment. The next spring they returned to Brodhead. In the fall of 1858 he made a contract with George Bussy, the owner of the Oakley woolen mill, to operate the same on shares. In the spring of 1861 he went to Cedarville and entered into partnership with Joseph Jackson in the woolen factory at that place. There he remained some time, operating in that partnership, and renting a part of the time until 1864, when he returned to the Oakley mill which he rented of Isaac Trembly, and in July, 1865, he purchased the property. He has since enlarged and refitted the mill with new machinery, which he still owns and operates. Mr. and Mrs. Kelley have five children— Emma Jane, born Sept. 18, 1846; Elissa Ann, born July 23, 1848; James A., born June 22, 1850; Oscar W., born Jan. 1, 1861; and Jennie A., born Oct. 28, 1862. Mr. Kelley has held the office of justice of the peace, and has been a prominent man in promoting the welfare of the public in his township.
    Mrs. Emma J. Myers resides on section 19. She was born in Union Co., Penn., Sept. 18, 1846. She is a daughter of John Kelley, who is now a resident of Spring Grove. She was married to George Myers, Jan. 9, 1866, and had four children—Edgar W., born May 11, 1867; Walter L., born Jan. 12, 1869, and died March 12, 1870; Oliver B., born Feb. 18, 1871; and Nellie May, born March 29, 1876, and died March 4, 1877. Samuel Myers, the father of George Myers, came to this town, accompanied by his father-in-law, Isaac Kline, in March, 1837, and settled on section 19. George Myers died Dec. 27, 1881, aged forty-five years, ten months and eleven days. Mrs. Myers lives on the homestead, which contains eighty acres. There is also 114 acres of land adjoining in the town of Jefferson.
    Samuel J. Smith was born near Alton, Ill., Aug. 27, 1838. His father, Samuel Smith, came from Kentucky to Illinois, and three weeks before the birth of Samuel went to Texas for the purpose of selecting a home for himself and family, and was never afterwards heard from. His mother became satisfied that he was dead, and in 1841 was married to Daniel Freeman. By this marriage five children were born—James W., who lives in Shullsburg, Wis.; William H., who lives in Oakland, Iowa; Daniel B., also living in Oakland; Levi E., living in this town; and Benjamin F., of Oakland Iowa. The father also lives in Oakland.  In 1843 the family removed to Rockford, Ill., and in 1846 to the town of Avon, Rock Co., Wis., living there until 1850. Mrs. Freeman died in 1850. and the family was broken up.  Mr. Freemen went to Missouri, and returning lived in Wiota until 1876 when he went to Iowa. The subject of this sketch went to live with Jackson Waller, of Laona, Ill., and remained with him four years, then being sixteen years old started to make his way alone visiting his half brothers in Iowa, and returning worked as a farm laborer until his marriage with Catharine, daughter of J. H. and Mary Clemans, Oct. 17, 1857.  In 1864 he purchased land on sections 26 and 27. His home is on section 26. In 1865 he enlisted in company I, 46th Wisconsin Volunteers, and served until the regiment was mustered out. They have five children—John H., born in 1858; Mary E., born in 1860; Harvey J., born in 1862; Burt E., born 1870; and Stanley R., born in 1878.

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    Fred J. Ties was born in Westphalia, Prussia, Jan. 4, 1841. He is the son of Henry and Sophia Ties. In l858 his father came to the ''land of the free," reaching New York, July 1, and came directly west, arriving in Chicago, July 4, and reaching Spring Grove July 7, and stopped with his son-in-law, Frederick Arnsmeir, where he lived for two years; then bought twenty acres of land on section 27, and lived there until 1866, when he sold and bought forty acres in the same section, where he lived until his death which occurred May 26, 1878. His wife survives him and now lives with her son, Henry, in Avon, Rock Co., Wis. Five children came over the sea with the parents—Sophia, deceased wife of John Leuts; Wilhelminie, now wife of Frederick Tilka; Fred J., the subject of this sketch; Amelia, wife of Henry Beckmeier; and Henry. Two children had preceded the parents—Louisa, wife of F. Cernsmeier, and Elizabeth, wife of Philip Heitkam. Frederick J. enlisted in company B, under Capt. Charles Jackson, and was a faithful, capable and intelligent soldier, and is a member of the G. A. R., W. W. Patten Post, No. 90. The same year he came home from the war he was married Dec. 13, 1865, to Rossie Aurine Emminger, daughter of John Emminger. She was born in Ashland Co., Ohio, and was an adopted daughter of James R. Coulter. Seven children have been born to them—Abbie S., born Sept. 29, 1866; Harriet F., born Oct. 16, 1868, and died March 18, 1881; Nellie J., born Sept. 23, 1870; Mary C., born Feb. 2, 1873; Allethe J., born March 24, 1875; James R., born Sept. 13, 1877; Fred M., born April 18, 1880. Mr. Ties met with an irreparable loss in the death of his wife, which occurred Jan. 16, 1884. The first two years of Fred Ties residence in this county he worked for J. W. Kildow, and the next year for John H. Woodling, and at the time of his enlistment was working for his brother-in-law, Mr. Arnsmeir. All his relatives opposed his going to the war, claiming that as a young German settler he could have no interest in the issue. Fred could not sleep nights on account of his anxiety to strike a blow for his adopted country, and go he would and did.  Mr. Ties has served on the town board, and one term as assessor. He is one of the active public spirited men of his town. He owns a farm of 200 acres.
    William Johnson is one of the substantial farmers of Spring Grove; his fine improvements on section 29, allows him to be a practical and successful farmer. He owns on this section 210 acres, and on section 19, 120 acres; also, on section 30, fifty acres. This land on section 30, is the oldest improvement in the town, it being a part of the Darius Daniels land, bought in 1836, and ten acres of the part now owned by Mr. Johnson was broken that year, the first sod turned in the township. Mr. Johnson was born in Northampton Co., Penn., May 7, 1825. He was reared a farmer, but after twenty-two years of age learned the carpenter's trade, at which he worked some seven or eight years, and some later, doing his own work. He was married Oct. 7, 1854, to Catharine Long, of Northampton Co., Penn., and in March of the following year (1855), moved to Freeport, Ill., and in 1858 made his present location his home. They have four children—Elizabeth, born Oct. 13, 1857, wife of John Straley, of this county; Hebron, born in August, 1860, who lives on his father's Farm, and who was married to Emma Robinson, Nov. 20, 1881, and has one child—George R., born Dec. 11, 1882; Mary J., born Feb. 7, 1866; and Ellen Maria, born June 25, 1868.
    Charles F. Gardner was born in Rensselaer Co., N. Y., April 2, 1853. His father, George W. Gardner, when Charles was three years old, came to this county and lived in the town of Decatur until the winter of 1859, when he went to Texas, and with the exception of a few letters received shortly after he reached there, has never been heard from. His wife, later, bought a place in the town of Decatur, where she died in February, 1877. Charles F. has two brothers, Burton J., now living in Brodhead, and

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John, living in the town of Decatur. Charles F., the subject of this sketch, was married Feb. 15, 1876, to Mary L., daughter of James M. Davis, now a resident of the town of Clarno. They lived, after marriage, with his mother. After her death they lived upon a farm owned by his father-in-law, in the town of Decatur, five years, then he bought his present residence and farm, on section 5, of Spring Grove. The place contains sixty-nine acres of choice land. Mr. and Mrs. Gardner had a child born June 15, 1881—James G. He died at the age of one year. Maud was born July 24, 1883. Mrs. Gardner is a granddaughter of David Davis, the pioneer settler of 1838.
    Jacob Haas was born in Juniata Co., Penn., Nov. 29, 1837, and came with his father and the rest of the family, to Rock Grove, Stephenson Co., Ill., in May, 1850. The family consisted of the parents, David and Barbara Haas, and six children—Valentine, John, who died in 1881, in Stephenson county; Sarah, who married Levi Bolender; Jacob, Edward, who died in 1859; and Catharine, who was married to Hugh Alexander, now living near Lena, Ill. David Haas, in 1856, located in Spring Grove, on section 33, living there until 1868, when he bought land on section 27, and moved there and lived until his death, which occurred in November, 1881. His wife he had lost by death in 1859, three years after coming to this town, and in 1864, he was married to Mrs. Mary Ann Snyder, widow of Samuel Snyder. She survives him and lives at the homestead. The subject of this sketch, Jacob Haas, was married Oct. 4, 1859, to Lucelia R. Chapel, daughter of John and Martha Chapel, and March 18, 1860, moved on eighty acres of land on section 33. bought of his father. He also owns forty acres on section 21. His residence, made in 1860, he has continually occupied, with the exception of five years, (1874 to 1879), to the present time. Those five years he lived on a farm, purchased on section 21. Mr. and Mrs. Haas have been blessed with a goodly number of children—Barbara L., wife of E. H. Marsh; Rosamond, wife of Fred Arnsmier; Nellie F., Nettie May, John J., Harriet L, Adelia, Emerson B. and Fairy M., live with their parents. An infant child died in 1861. Agatha F., died in 1864. Marion died in 1875. Mr. Haas is an industrious, respected citizen of Spring Grove.
    William Hall, Jr., was born in Theresa, Jefferson Co., N. Y., March 16, 1836. He is the oldest of five children. The others are—Nathaniel H., living in San Francisco Co., Cal.; Mary A., wife of James L. Eldridge, living at Cloverdale, Cal.; Emma, wife of Chester Gifford; and Lewis, living at Peoria, Ill. In 1843 his father came to Janesville, Wis., and settled. He lived in Rock county sixteen years, was engaged at different points in the agricultural machine trade. He owned and operated at different times several farms. In 1859 he moved to this county and bought of Thomas Hall a very fine farm in the town of Jefferson. It is now known as the Holmes farm, and contains 240 acres of land. He resided there about five years and then sold it to Mr. Holmes and entered into partnership with Axtel & Shafer in the grain trade at Juda. He was in that trade several years, then opened a general merchandise store at Attica, and later returned to Juda, and from there to Doylestown, Columbia Co., Wis., where he engaged in the grain trade. While there he bought two farms in Rock county. He moved there and managed the property, but in March, 1863, sold the farms and moved to Warren, Ill., where he now (1884) lives. In 1866 his wife died. William Hall, Jr., lived with his father until he was married, Jan. 16, 1865, to Adeline Thompson, daughter of Wilson Thompson, of this town. Her father died in April, 1871. Her mother lives with her son, Myron Thompson, at Waverly, Iowa. Mr. and Mrs. Hall commenced housekeeping on the Holmes place in the town of Jefferson, and later lived at Twin Grove. He then removed to their residence in this town. Mrs. Hall's father, Wilson Thompson, settled in this State

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in Milwaukee county, in 1837, and in Green county in 1854, on section 10, this town. He was a ship carpenter.   Mrs. Hall has six brothers living—Lafayette, in this town; Washington, in the town or Jefferson; Charles, Frank and Myron, who lives near Waverly, Iowa; and Grant, in Shell Rock, Iowa. All but Myron and Grant are married. She has one sister, Louisa, wife of Edward McNair. Mr. Hall's brothers are—Nathaniel, George, Eugene and Rush. They all live in San Francisco, Cal. Two sisters, Hattie, wife of Fred Cronett, resides in San Francisco; and Ida B., wife of Andrew Goble. resides in Peoria. Ill. Mr. and Mrs. Hall have had two children—Eugene, born Sept. 27, 1865; Minnie May, born June 4, 1867, and died Sept. 12, 1868. Mr. Hall lives on section 8. Mr. Hall enlisted in December, 1861, in the 3d batallion, 2d Wisconsin Cavalry. He was discharged in 1863 for disability.
    Thomas A. Jackson was born on the 2d day of March, 1829, in what is now Stewart township, Fayette Co., Penn; received less than one year's schooling, all told, in the common schools of that day. His parents were born in the State of Maryland.  His father, Elijah Jackson, was by trade a stone and brick mason. Thomas, the oldest of eleven children, was hired out among the farmers from the age of twelve years most of his time until of age; and in this way may have been said to have been reared a farmer, in which business he has continued most of his time since. When a young man he taught school five winter terms, three of them in the same district. In 1854 he was married to Mary Morris, a farmer's daughter, of the same township. Nine children have been born to them, four sons and five daughters, all living but one. Their names and ages are— Laura, twenty-nine; Marshall, twenty-seven; Charles Willard, twenty-five; Emma Luella died in 1862, nearly two years old; Walter; twenty; Fred, seventeen; Minnie, fourteen, Clara, twelve; and Jessie Belle, youngest, five years of age.  In the spring of 1854 he was elected captain of the Falls City Guards, a uniformed military company raised in Fayette county, in which capacity he served two years, when he resigned and removed to Wisconsin in the spring of 1856, settling at Beloit, Rock county, near which place he remained nearly two years, coming to Green county in the spring of 1858, settling near his present residence, remaining one year, then removing to what is known as the Scotch settlement, ten miles northeast of Rockford, Winnebago Co., Ill., where he resided during the years 1859, 1860 and most of 1861, engaged mostly in farming. About the time the war broke out he was elected captain of the Independent Scotch Infantry, a military company raised by the young men of the Scotch settlement. The company not entering the service as an organization, he, with his brother, Charles H. Jackson, who had just been discharged from the three months' service in the 10th Illinois Infantry, came to Green with a few men from the Scotch settlement and commenced to recruit a company for the 13th Wisconsin Infantry. That regiment being full before the company was full, it was assigned to the 18th Wisconsin Infantry. Thomas was elected 1st lieutenant of the company, the captaincy being conceded to Charles H. Jackson, by reason of his three months' active service in the field. The company went into camp at Milwaukee in December, 1861, with the other companies composing the 18th, and, upon the organization of the regiment, was assigned and lettered company B, the second post of honor. The 18th remained in camp at Milwaukee until the 30th day of March, 1862, just one week to a day prior to the first day's battle of Pittsburg Landing, when it broke camp and was started by rail for the front, passing through Chicago, St. Louis, Cairo, Paducah, Ky., and up the Tennessee river to Pittsburg Landing, where it arrived on Saturday afternoon, April 5, a few hours before the battle, and was pushed out

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to the extreme front, three and one-half miles, that same evening; assigned to Gen. B. M. Prentiss' division. Lieut. Jackson was in command of his company, and in the front line of attack on the morning of the 6th of April, and was on the evening of that day taken prisoner, with about 175 men and officers of the 18th, with what was left of Gen. Prentiss' division— some 2,200 men and officers; spending nearly seven months in rebel prisons, being confined in Montgomery, Ala., Macon and Madison, Ga , and lastly, in old Libby prison, Richmond, Va., where with his fellow officers he was parolled in October, 1862, and passed into the Union lines. About two months later he was exchanged and commissioned captain of his company, rejoining his regiment at Lake Providence, La., in February, 1863; afterwards participating in the battles of Jackson, Miss., May 14, 1863; and Champion Hills, Miss., May 16, 1863; and the siege of Vicksburg; the battle of Missionary Ridge, in November, 1863; Allatoona, Ga., Oct. 5, 1864, and the battle of Wise's Fork, N. C., in March, 1865. He was mustered out of service in April, 1865, at Goldsboro, N. C., and arrived at home in May, 1865, after three and one-half year's service. In the spring of 1866 he was elected town clerk of his town, and held the position for seven consecutive terms. He was elected to the legislature from his district in the fall of 1868, and re-elected to the same position in the fall of 1869, serving two full terms; was during his last term, appointed by Gov. Fairchild a member of the State visiting committee from the 3d congressional district. Since that time he has been mostly employed on his farm. Within the last four years he has spent the greater part of his time as an underwriter for a fire insurance company in Iowa. His parents, Elijah and Mary A. Jackson, lived in Green county on the farm now owned by Thomas A. Jackson, for over twenty years; removing to Hamilton county in 1876, where his father died in 1880, aged seventy-five years; and where his mother still lives, aged seventy-seven years. Of his four brothers, three are living. Col. Charles H. Jackson, the next oldest, resides in Missouri. He has been engaged as a real estate dealer, handling farming and mineral lands. William C. Jackson lives in Gage Co., Neb, and is a farmer. The next one, Sylvester S. Jackson, resides in the State of Georgia, and is a professional musician and teacher. The youngest brother, Alexander Jackson, died in Hamilton county in 1879, and was a farmer. Four of the five brothers served through the late war as commissioned officers in the Union army; all but one of them for over three years. Of his six sisters, two died many years ago in Wisconsin. The other four are all married, and living in Hamilton Co., Neb.

    Andrew J. Kryder lives on section 30.  His farm of 160 acres is a part of the land entered by Daniel Baxter in 1836.  His brother, John J. Kryder, who lived on the same section, also has a farm of 160 acres, a part of the land bought by Baxter at the same time. Andrew J. Kryder also owns another farm of eighty acres on section 31, adjoining the homestead.  Mr. Kryder settled here in 1862, coming from Stephenson Co., Ill.  He was born in Clinton Co., Penn., May 16, 1831.  His father, John Kryder, brought the family to Stephenson Co., Ill., in 1847, where he now lives, in the town of Lancaster.  The mother died there in 1866.  Andrew J., the subject of this sketch, was married in Buckeye township, Stephenson county, Dec. 28, 1857, to Lavina Zimmerman.  She was born in Lycoming Co., Penn., Sept. 16, 1831, and came west with her father's family settling in Buckeye in 1846.  Her father, Mathias Zimmerman, died March 2, 1875.  Her mother, Catherine Zimmerman, died in May, 1862.  Mr. and Mrs. Kryder lived on his father's farm until they made their removal, in 1862, to their present residence.  They have had three children--Catharine Ann, born Oct. 30, 1858, and died in infancy; Charles Wesley, born Oct. 25, 1860; Clara Alice, born Oct. 23, 1863.  Both are living with their parents.  Mr.

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Kryder is one of the thorough practical farmers of Spring Grove.
    Mrs. Martha Miles, widow of James Miles, lives upon section 7, in the town of Spring Grove. She is a daughter of George Hodgson, one of the pioneer settlers of northern Illinois. Mr. Hodgson came from Cayuga Co., N. Y., nearly half a century ago, and settled, with his family, consisting of a wife and seven children, in Stephenson Co., Ill.  Mrs. Miles, subject of this sketch, was the youngest of the family. Her husband, James Miles, was born Jan. 31, 1831, in Clinton Co., Penn., and in 1850, came with his father's family, to Stephenson county, where he was married Dec. 27, 1855.   They resided in that county about eight years, then came to Spring Grove and settled on section 27, where they lived until 1869. In that year they removed to section 7, Mrs. Miles' present residence. Mr. Miles died April 24, 1874.  They had four children—Ashley, born in December, 1856, and died in November, 1858; Lucy, born in April, 1858; Mary, born in November, 1861, and Maud, born in August, 1871.
    Isaac Zimmerman came to Spring Grove in April, 1869, and bought ninety acres of improved land, known as James Farmer's place, on section 36, where he now lives. He was born in Pennsylvania, and was reared in Northumberland county. He was inclined to come west on account of his children having preceded him. His son, George, came west in 1853, and has been a resident of this town since 1855. His son, Henry, came west in 1853, and now lives on section 27. Benjamin came with his father, and now lives on section 34. Mr. Zimmerman had two unmarried daughters—Catharine and Lavina, and Elizabeth, a grandchild.  Catharine, June 30, 1872, was married to Thomas O. Cavenaugh, a son of John O. Cavenaugh. His mother died when he was five years old, and he was brought up by Reuben Babcock. They have two children—Addie, born May 24, 1873, and Rowena, born Feb. 21, 1876. Lavina was married to Andrew Lanby, and the grandchild, Elizabeth, was married to John Moyer. Another daughter, Hettie, came west. She was married to Fredrick Gable. They settled in Winnebago Co., Ill., where she died.. A child she left was adopted by John Reader. Mr. Reader lives in Winnebago county. They have two children and two adopted children. Mr. Zimmerman lost his wife by death Sept. 15, 1875, at the age of sixty-seven years.
    Benjamin Zimmerman, a son of Isaac Zimmerman, was born in Columbia Co., Penn., Oct. 19, 1830. His father was a farmer, and Benjamin was reared on a farm. He was married to Amanda Savage, who was born in Northumberland, Penn., in 1836, and came to this county in 1869, locating in Spring Grove, and living the first eighteen mouths in a house on John H. Woodling's farm. He bought eighty acres on section 34 and built a house, into which he moved during the fall of 1870. He has since resided there and owns also thirty acres on section 26. Mr. and Mrs. Zimmerman have had the good fortune to be blessed with eleven children, all of whom are now living—William, born in June, 1855; Galen, born in August, 1856; Lavina, born in September, 1859; John S., born in December, 1861; George T., born in February, 1864; Isaac A., born in October, 1866; Sarah E., born in October, 1868; Catharine, born in May, 1871; Riley, born in June, 1873; Maggie, born in October, 1874; and Annie, born in June, 1877.
    John S. Zimmerman, son of Benjamin and Amanda Zimmerman, was born in Pennsylvania, Dec. 22, 1861. When he was in his eighth year, his father removed with his family to this town. At the same time came his grandfather, Isaac Zimmerman. John has grown to manhood in this town. "Ben," as he is familiarly called, is well and favorably known as a young man of correct life, good habits, honest, industrious and of a genial disposition. He will soon leave the old home to carve out his fortunes, and if the future can be judged by the

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past, he will successfully accomplish whatever he undertakes.
    John A. Brant was born in Somerset Co.. Penn., July 20, 1816. His mother died when he was quite young, and he, when ten years of age, went to live with his grandfather. John Lambert, who lived in the same county, lived with him until sixteen years of age, and was then apprenticed to David Ross, to learn the trade of carpenter and joiner. After four years with Mr. Ross, in 1836, he went to Tuscarawas Co., Ohio. He worked at his trade there seven years, and from there went to Wabash Co., Ind., bought land there, but followed his trade. In 1842 he married Eliza J. Kent, and from there moved to this county in 1845, lived a few months with Isaac Kline, and the following year rented the Brant saw mill. He ran this mill until he moved to his present residence on section 34, where he has ever since lived. Mr. and Mrs. Brant have had ten children—Ann Eliza, wife of George W. Davis; Samuel, living on same section; Jefferson died in infancy; Mary, deceased wife of Samuel Boyles; Frank, living in Jefferson; Tillman H., Olive, Maggie, John and Myrtie.  A grandchild, the daughter of Mrs. Mary Boyles, has been taken into the family. Mr. Brant has always voted the republican ticket.
    John H. Woodling, a farmer of the town of Spring Grove, is one of the respected old pioneers of that part of the county, and now lives on section 26, where he settled in 1845. He was born in Montgomery Co., Penn., May 27, 1809, near Germantown. His father, Jacob Woodling, was also a native of that county, and was four weeks old at the time of the battle of Brandywine, and died Oct. 18, 1844, in Vigo Co., Ind.   His wife, the mother of John H., died Aug. 11, 1859, at the residence of her son. There was a family of ten children, seven of whom settled in Vigo Co., Ind., in 1837. The names of the children were—Jacob deceased; John H.; Francis, now in Brodhead; Charles, died in this town; Eliza, wife of E. R. Allen, Esq.; Maria, Ann, deceased; Polly, now living in Pennsylvania; Jacob, deceased; and Catharine, deceased. John H. Woodling, the subject of this sketch, was married in Vigo Co. Ind., Jan., 28, 1841 to Nancy B. Roland, and came here bringing his mother with him, arriving in this county, as before stated, in 1845, when he bought 200 acres of land. The married life of Mr. and Mrs. Woodling gave them eight children—Delia Ann, born Dec. 28, 1841, wife of George H. Slocum; Mary Jane, born June 5, 1844, wife of Cyrus A. Horton; Almina, born Oct. 15, 1849, died Aug. 26, 1850; Chauncy S., born Aug. 24, 1851, died Oct. 29, 1852; John Lyman, born Sept. 8, 1853, died Jan. 14, 1855; Eunice L., born Jan. 4, 1857, wife of Levi E. Freeman; Emery R, born Sept. 16, 1859, lives at home; Harriet E., born Dec. 6, 1862, died Feb. 27, 1864. Mrs. Woodling departed this life March 1, 1881.   Mr. Woodling has .always been an active, public spirited citizen, and has served his town on the board of supervisors, for a number of terms. Emery R., his son, was married to Kate, daughter of Daniel Brobst. They have one child— John II., who was born July 25, 1883.   Mr. Woodling has always been politically a republican, since the organization of that party.   He and his wife were members of the United Brethren Church, until that organization here became defunct.  Mr. Woodling is not now a member of any Church, but is a Christian gentleman.
    Cyrus I. Putnam lives on section 36, town of Spring Grove. His good improvements, fine buildings, and highly cultivated farm of 180 acres, indicate a farmer of thrift and enterprise. He was born in Jefferson Co., N. Y., Feb. 23, 1835. His parents moved to Canada, when he was quite young, and subsequently to Ogle Co., Ill. His father, John Putnam, died in Winnebago Co., Ill., in 1852.  His mother died in 1867.   Mr. Putnam has a sister, Mrs. Maria Keyser, living in Ogle Co., Ill., a brother, G. Putnam, in Mitchell Co.. Iowa, a sister, Mrs.

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Jane Amen, in West Union, Iowa, a brother, Henry, at Fort Worth, Texas, and a brother William, at Deer Lodge, Montana. Cyrus I. Putnam, was married Aug. 15, 1856, to Harriet Sanderson, who was born in Old Cambridge, Mass., in 1836. Her parents came to Winnebago Co., Ill., in 1839. Her father, John Sanderson, died in Laona, that county, in 1851.  Her mother now lives with her. Mrs. A. Ludlow and Mrs. J. V. Richardson are half sisters to Mrs. Putnam. Mr. and Mrs. Putnam have had born to them four children—Ida, born Oct. 12, 1860; she was married to Theodore Allen. Mettie, born June 9, 1867, lives at home; George A., born April 20, 1872, and one child died in infancy.
    Hiram Dunwiddie, son of John Dunwiddie, was born in Green Co., Ohio, in 1843. He came to Green Co., Wis., in company with his brothers, Daniel, David and Brooks, all of whom are living in this county. Hiram was married to Mary Woodel, and ten children were born to them—Joel, deceased; Ruth, wife of George Osborn, living in Furness Co., Neb.; Susan, wife of Charles Scudder, of Bates Co., Mo.; Adelaide, deceased; Newton, Alice, wife of Frank Osborn, of Furness Co., Neb.; George, living in Idaho; Eldora, deceased; Libbie, wife of Charles Swan. Hiram Dunwiddie settled in the town of Jefferson, one and a half miles south of Juda, where he owned 220 acres of land. He resided here until his death, which occurred June 17, 1869. His widow now lives in the village of Juda.
    D. T. Dunwiddie, son of Hiram and Mary Dunwiddie, was born in the town of Jefferson. He resided upon the homestead farm until his marriage with Alice, daughter of William Newman, Aug. 29, 1875. Four children have been born to them, all of whom are living—Eldora V., born Aug. 18, 1876; Daniel R., born Jan. 4, 1879; George J. born Dec. 13, 1880; and Hiram J., born March 2, 1883. Mr. Dunwiddie lives on a part of the farm owned by P. Atwood, on section 14.
    Levi O. Knudsen, one of the large farmers of Spring Grove, lives on section 12, where he has very fine farm buildings, including a creamery, for manufacturing the product of his own cows, keeping about forty. The farm contains 406 acres. His brother, Abram, lives adjoining, and together they have all of section 12, except eighty acres, besides land in other places. The brothers were born in Norway; Levi in 1842. Their father, Ole Knudsen, came to America bringing the family with him, and first located near Oxford, Rock county, but the next spring bought eighty acres in the town of Spring Grove. The buildings owned by his son, Levi, are located on this purchase. Seven children came with the parents—Lucy, wife of Truls Knutson; Knute, deceased; Christian, deceased; Isabella, wife of O. Onnesgord, of Rock county; Levi, the subject of this sketch; Ole, who lives in Rock county; Cary and Abram, who still live in Norway. The father died in March, 1873; the mother now (1884) lives with Levi. Oct. 31, 1868, Levi O. Knudsen and Sarah Peterson were married. Her father, Alex. Peterson, came from Norway to Rock county this State, when Sarah was five years old. He died in 1874. Her mother survives and lives with her son, Orloff Peterson, in Rock county. Mr. and Mrs. Levi Knudsen have eight children—Olis, born June 1, 1869; Albert, born in February, 1871; Betsey, born in February, 1873; Alvah, born in October, l874; Sophia, born in November, 1876; Carl, born in April, 1879; Clare, born in April, 1881; and Leonard, born in November, 1883.
    Benjamin Stabler, in 1873, bought of F. Mundhanke, his residence and farm on section 4, one of the finest locations and residences in this part of the town. The farm was known to the early settlers as the Woodel farm, Allen Woodel making the original entry and the first improvements, away back in the pioneer days. Mr. Stabler was born in Juniata Co,, Penn., Dec. 23, 1839. His father, George Stabler, removed with his family of five children, two

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boys and three girls, to Stephenson Co., Ill., in June, 1850. He died the next month; his wife died in Nebraska, in September, 1880. The rest of the family, excepting Benjamin and one sister, Jane, are all in Nebraska. Jane is the wife of Jacob Minzer, of Rock Grove, Stephenson Co., Ill. Benjamin Stabler was married on May 15, 1860, to Amelia Stahlnecker. They have had ten children born to them—George E., born Nov. 23, 1861; John L., born June 18, 1863; Mary E., born March 2, 1865; Emma M, born Jan. 2, 1867; Franklin W., born June 18, 1868; James L.. born April 9, 1870; Abbie A., born Feb. 20, 1872; Frederick B., born April 6, 1873; Oscar W., born May 31, 1874; Robert E., born Feb. 20, 1877, and died March 18, 1877. After marriage, Mr. Stabler lived on the farm belonging to his father’s estate, six years, paying rent to the estate for the same; and then bought the farm, and lived there until he sold out in 1873, and came to Spring Grove.

Transcribed by:
Ken Holcomb
Bloomington, IL